Chinese Language – Hakka Chinese

Hakka (English: Hakka, Hakka vernacular characters: Hak-kâ-ngî, Hag5-ga1-ngi1), abbreviated as Hakka, is a tonal language in the Chinese family under the Sino-Tibetan family. Yes, One of the common languages of Han and Hakka people and a tool for identification, International language code: ISO 639-3 hak. It is one of the seven major Chinese dialects.

Hakka is also called Hakka on informal occasions. According to different accents, it can be divided into Meizhou dialect, Huiyang dialect, Huizhou dialect, Heyuan dialect, Gannan dialect, Tingzhou dialect, etc. In some areas, it is also called Cantonese, Shuiyuanyin, Ya dialect, Xinmin dialect, Moge dialect, and Huaiyuan dialect.  In language academic research, the Meixian dialect is the representative,  Huiyang dialect is more influential in reality; Taiwan is represented by the Sixian dialect.

Hakka is one of the official languages of Taiwan, China (the official language), and one of the official languages of the Republic of Suriname   . It was once one of the main languages ​​in circulation in the Lanfang Republic; it was once the “national language” of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and was widely used in official documents.

Hakka is mainly distributed in Meizhou, Huizhou, Heyuan, Shenzhen, and Shaoguan in Guangdong; Ganzhou in Jiangxi; Longyan and Sanming in Fujian; Hong Kong New Territories  and Hsinchu, Miaoli, Taoyuan in Taiwan and other places.  The scope mainly includes southern Jiangxi, western Fujian, eastern Guangdong, northern Guangdong, and the area on the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary , and is widely used in more than 180 areas in more than 10 provinces (cities, autonomous regions) in southern China Counties and cities and overseas Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, America, etc. More than 80 countries and regions. Hakka is spoken by approximately 65 million people worldwide.

The Hakka language is the “living fossil” of ancient Chinese in the Central Plains, retaining the pronunciation characteristics of many ancient Chinese words and common words in the Central Plains. A movement to return to my mother tongue occurred in Taiwan in 1988, which promoted the birth and development of Hakka modern media, Hakka pop music, and the emergence of language services in public life, which enabled Hakka to continue to be passed on in modern society and integrated into the trend of the times.


Some experts believe that the Hakka people first migrated from the north to southern China following the wave of immigration during several wars and turbulent times in ancient times. Their ancestors migrated from Henan, Shanxi, and other places today, and at the same time brought the characteristics of the language where they were at that time.

The ancestors of the Hakka people were originally the Han nationality in the Central Plains. Many ancient Chinese phonetic features still used in modern Hakka, including the ending consonants [-p][-t][-k] that can also be found in other southern dialects, have disappeared in some northern dialects.

Due to the migration of the Hakka people, the Hakka language will be affected by the dialects that Hakka ancestors migrated to the region. For example, many common words can be found in Hakka, Hokkien, and Cantonese.


Hakka was initially finalized during the Southern Song Dynasty. On the basis of inheriting ancient Chinese, its pronunciation has undergone regular sound changes. For example, among Middle Chinese, “people”, Chinese initials “day” part (ie day mother ), in Mandarin and Chinese dialects made for the most (r), IPA [ʐ], Hakka, compared with (ng), IPA [ŋ] or [ȵ]; the Middle Chinese pronunciation of “武” is [mvu], while in Hakka, the pronunciation becomes [vu].


Since the Song Dynasty at the latest, the languages of Meizhou and Tingzhou, the Hakka base camps, have attracted people’s attention at that time.

Southern Song Qingyuan between any Tingzhou Professor Chen Yixin in ” Postscript age support learning Stele ” goes: “Min eight counties, Ting o Five Ridges, and then the wind to learn – rather like Plains .” Almost contemporary Liu Chuang in the chant Zhangzhou verse folk music Among them: “Wind and smoke are not like Zhongzhou.” The comparison between the two shows that the dialects and cultural features of the residents of Ting and Zhang, which are adjacent to each other in the eyes of the Song people, are completely different. It shows that Minxi has formed a unique language in Song Dynasty.

The ” Yongle Dadian ” of the Ming Dynasty quoted a poem from a certain family in the Song Dynasty from “Roaming Collection” and “Guo Tingzhou”: “The terrain is wide in the west, and the local tone is different from Fujian in the north”. It shows that the dialect of the language of Tingzhou in the Song Dynasty was close to the northern ancient Chinese at that time, but different from the Min dialect.

The ” Yongle Dadian ” of the Ming Dynasty quoted the Song Dynasty’s “Tujingzhi” as saying: “The division of tides is in Guang, and it is in ancient Fujian and Yue regions. Its language appetite is quite similar to the four states under Fujian, Guang, Hui, Mei, and Xuncao. And the language, most of them cannot be translated. However, the Haifeng of Hui is close to Chao, and the pronunciation is different. Between Chrome, his voice customs are the same as those of Meiyang.” It shows that Chaozhou and Meizhou had their own local accents, which were different from each other. The local sounds played by Mei Chao are the same as Mei. Between Chaomei in Song Dynasty, which is equivalent to today’s Dapu, Fengshui, and other places, they are all Hakka regions. This reveals that the distribution of dialects at that time is roughly the same today. It can be inferred that the Hakka dialect was formed as early as the Song Dynasty.

Ming Dynasty Jiajing Between ” Annals of Guangdong ” contains Huizhou government Jiajingnianjian “Voice” scenario: If Fu Boluo, Heyuan close to the government, the same voice, Haifeng nearly tide, then the class Chaoyin, Longchuan, Xingning, Changle Connected to Gan, it is similar to Gan sound, and the language is different.

In the “Huizhou Fuzhi ” during the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, the dialects and customs of the Xingning and Wuhua areas were recorded: “Speech customs are similar to Gan “, indicating that the language of the region at that time was similar to the dialect of Jiangxi.

In the “Xingning County Chronicles” during the Zhengde period of the Ming Dynasty, there is a more detailed record of the Xingning dialect at that time: “The sound of Qi Yun is ash, and Geng Yun is yang, such as Li is coming, the sound is Shang, and the stone is Shuo. Same as Jiangnan. It’s natural…There are also yang and Huang that are indifferent.” There are also some vocabulary records at that time: “The father said Abba, the mother said A sister, and the brother and sister-in-law put Asia first, like the brother said Brother Ya, sister-in-law called sister-in-law, call Xiaosuo and call Tai, call for children and call Tai, play and call materials, ask what is a curse, ask who is cursing and if no one is cursed, move closer and call buried, and those who do not check call Sanzi, its Huxi said open, Ling said two”.

The old “The Chronicles of Chengxiang County” compiled by Li Shichun at the end of the Ming Dynasty “in the dialect of a county ( Chaozhou Prefecture ), the local sounds of the county people are close to Zhang and Quan (zhou), and the local sounds of Cheng (Chengxiang) people are similar to Ting and Gan ( State)”. It can be seen that until the early 17th century, the dialect of Chengxiang County was still considered to be close to the Ting and Gan areas.

Xu Xuzeng’s “Fenghu Miscellaneous Notes,” says: Although the language of the guests is slightly different from that of the provinces in the Mainland, his voice in reading is quite positive. So in the beginning, I left my hometown and traveled through the interior, and I could communicate everywhere. However, it is still not strong and identical to the native language.

The “Guishan County Chronicles” during the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty included more than 20 words, such as “Brother Says Yage”, “Raining Says Falling Water”, etc.

The “Changning County Chronicles” during the Daoguang Period of the Qing Dynasty recorded some words used at that time, such as “Didou” (peanuts) and “Bitter Wheat” (a kind of lettuce with a slightly bitter taste).

Qing Dynasty Tongzhi Between “Ganzhou” records “Ganzhou Fujian and Guangdong border access, multi-language and similar waterways as said Chun, the word book no. Stone said the water phase occasion as sandals, see the” Xiangshan Collection.

The Qing linguistics master Zhang Taiyan’s “Hakka Dialect Preface” said: “For those who are called Hakka in Guangdong, the Jiaying counties are the sect (Meizhou was called Jiaying Prefecture in the Qing Dynasty ).” The sound is also similar to that of Lingbei .” Zhang Taiyan did some research on the Hakka language system, and selected 63 Hakka words, using “Shuowen”, “Erya”, “Dialect”, “Book of Rites” and ” Mao Ancient books such as “Poems”, “Zhan Guo Ce”, and “Lao Zi” have been confirmed to show that the vocabulary of the Hakka dialect is the same as that of ancient Chinese.

Huang Zunxian’s “Preface to the Biography of Meizhou Poems,” said: “This guest came from He and Luo, from Fujian to Guangdong, passed down to the world for 30 years, 700 years, and his language has changed a lot. There are ” Dialects ” and “Erya”. Words, the exegesis family loses its meaning, and the guests still know the ancient meaning; there are rhymes of Shen Yue and Liu Yuan, the ci Zhang family mistakes their pronunciation, and the guests still have the ancient pronunciation; even the voice of the city’s slurs, the words of the sons and daughters To examine its origin, nothing can be written in the book.” “Yu Wenzhi, Mr. Chen Lanfu said that the guest language proves that Zhou Deqing’s ” Zhongyuan Yinyun” is all in harmony .”

Xu Ke’s ” Qing Barnyard Notes” contains Hakka: Many people from Jiaying, Guangdong, Chengdu, Sichuan, and their entry into Shu began when the Guangdong Kou Shidakai led the masses to the west. The stone was defeated, and the crowd was disintegrated. The stone army called for more people, so they traveled to Shu and never returned, marrying a wife and having children, compared to the natives. However, its language has remained unchanged for decades, so Chengdu people call it “Hakka”. However, the language spoken by the Jiaying people on their own islands is called the Hakka dialect by the Cantonese, and Gai is not a native of Jiaying. Hakka: The five genera of Nanxiong, Shaozhou, Lianzhou, Huizhou, and Jiaying in Guangdong, Huaxian, Longmen, Qingyuan in Guangzhou, and Dapu and Fengshui in Chaozhou all speak in Hakka. The native people of Gai are called Hakka afterward, so they are called Hakka. The stanza of the language is not far from the mainland, and it matches the phonology of the Six Dynasties.

Chinese Language – Standard Mandarin

Standard Mandarin/Putonghua is another name for modern standard Chinese. It uses Beijing phonetics as the standard sound northern Mandarin as the basic dialect and classic modern vernacular writings as the grammatical norm.
Chinese is not equivalent to Putonghua. The promotion of Putonghua is not to artificially eliminate dialects. It is mainly to eliminate dialect barriers and facilitate social communication. It is not inconsistent with the people’s use of traditional dialects.
Standard Mandarin
Putonghua as a UN working language has become an important bridge of cultural exchange between China and foreigners to learn Chinese preferred language. As of 2015, 70% of China’s population has the ability to use Mandarin, and there are still about 400 million people who are confined to understandable one-way communication.
The  “Implementation Plan for the Popularization of the National Common Language and Written Project” plans to “by 2020, basically popularize the national common language throughout the country”. Specifically, the national popularization rate of Putonghua will reach over 80% on average.
The term “Putonghua” appeared in the late Qing Dynasty. In 1909, the Qing court designated Beiping Mandarin as the ” national language “. During the Republic of China, the pronunciation of the national language was formulated many times. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1955, the national language was designated as Mandarin.
The predecessor of Mandarin is Ming and Qing Mandarin, and earlier it was called Yayan. Compared with the dialects of the southeast region, modern Mandarin has fewer ancient sounds, and the ” entering tone” has disappeared.
please speak standard mandarin
In 1909, the Qing government named Peking pronunciation as the national language. In the Republic of China, several standards were formulated. In 1918, the Beiyang government announced the first set of national phonetic alphabets recognized by the country.
In 1920, the “Beijing-State Controversy” broke out.
In 1932, the National Government Ministry of Education promulgated the “Commonly Used Words for National Phonetics”. Mandarin standard. In Mandarin, Beijing phonetic is used as the standard tone instead of Luanping phonetic. After the standard was formulated, it was promoted to the whole country in 1955.
In 2000, the ” Law of the People’s Republic of China on the National Standard Spoken and Written Language ” established the legal status of Putonghua and standardized Chinese characters as the national standard spoken and written language.

Chinese Language – Min Nan dialect

Min Nan dialects said to have originated in the Yellow River and Luoshui Basins, and moved to southern Fujian during the Western Jin Dynasty, Tang   Dynasty, and Northern Song Dynasty, and originated in Quanzhou, Fujian. Are mainly distributed in addition to the southern region and Taiwan, but also widely distributed in the northeast region of Fujian, Zhejiang Southeast, Guangdong, and eastern regions  (Shanwei, Jieyang, Shantou,   Chaozhou),   western region (Zhanjiang, Maoming, Yangjiang), Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (Zhongshan, Hong Kong), Hainan Island and most of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. There are more than 70 million Hokkien speakers in the world.


The term “Hokkien” can be divided into broad and narrow meanings. The broad academically refers to the collection of Hokkien languages, and the narrow meaning only refers to Hokkien languages in Fujian and Taiwan. Taiwan and Western scholars mostly think it is a language, belonging to the Min language branch of the Chinese family of the Sino-Tibetan family.


In the classification of mainland linguistics, it belongs to the Min dialect of the Chinese family. Hokkien dialects are called differently in various places, such as Quanzhou dialect, Zhangzhou dialect, [5] Xiamen dialect, Fujian dialect, Heluo dialect, Chaoshan dialect, Leizhou dialect, Shanwei dialect (ancient Henan dialect), and Xueshan dialect in mainland China. Lao dialect, etc.; in Taiwan, it is also known as Taiwanese, Heluo dialect, or Fulao dialect, while overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia are called Hokkien dialect (Hokkien) or Zanong dialect ( Taiwanese is written as Zanong dialect).

Min Nan dialect


Historical formation

The branches of Hokkien dialects all originated from the Zhangzhou phonetic system in Quanzhou, but due to factors such as the time of differentiation, geographical barriers, and the evolution of Zhangquan sounds, there have been varying differences and changes.


The formation of Hokkien is mainly due to two waves of emigration. The reason for emigration is barbarism and avoidance of chaos:First: the fourth century the Jin Dynasty who moved into Fujian, the primary part of the Quanzhou dialect formed in the Jin dynasty five random China period (AD 304–439 years), alien invasion the Central Plains, the West Jin Yongjia queue for two years (AD 308 years) At that time, the eight clans (Zhan Lin Huang, Chen Zheng Qiu, He Hu) of the Central Plains (in Henan) began to take refuge in the river basins of Quanzhou, Jinjiang, Fujian, etc.


They used the Central Plains language at that time (for example, body, skin, turtle, ponder, Ding, chopsticks, etc.) were brought here and later called “Quanzhou dialect”. But this time the number is very small, and most of the immigrants stay in the Minjiang and Mulanxi basins. During the Liang Tianjian period of the Southern Dynasties (502-519AD), Nan’an County was established in the southern part of Jin’an County to maintain the stability of southern Fujian. It was governed in Fengzhou Town, Nan’an City and led Jin’an and other three counties, and governed today’s Xiamen and Putian. Quanzhou, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou, but were soon revoked. It was not until the mid-Tang Dynasty more than 200 years later that Wurongzhou was set up for the third time in the urban area of  Quanzhou.

Min Nan dialect Historical formation


Soon after it was renamed Quanzhou, the organizational system in Quanzhou’s urban area was stabilized. County, Hui’an, Yongchun, and Dehua were only established in the Five Dynasties more than 400 years later. Therefore, a small amount of “Quanzhou dialect” is the third and fourth centuries Central Plains “Wu Chu dialect” (for example phio5, hand ng2, Limulus hia) and local “Vietnamese dialect” (for example loo3 (high), san2) (Slim), lim (Drink), hiu3 (Sprinkle)), which is the main source of “Vernacular”, earlier than “Reading”.


Second: the Tang Dynasty Chen Zheng, Chen Yuanguang father settlement Kids in Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou words are initially formed in the Tang Emperor general chapter two years (AD 669 years) in southern Fujian barbarians bring disaster disturbed, the court sent Chen Zheng, Yuanguang father and son (Prefecture east) south To quell the chaos, the area of ​​Zhangzhou, where the troops were standing still after the chaos, also includes the areas of Silla and Zhangping in the Longyan area today. These people brought the Middle Chinese from the seventh century. Before Zhangzhou was established in the Tang Dynasty, there were only a few thousand households.


These people should be agricultural households under the control of the Tang Dynasty. Besides them, there were a few barbarians living in the mountainous areas of southern Zhangzhou. The Tang Dynasty army led by Chen Yuanguang and the barbarians fought a long war for control of Zhangzhou. As a result of the fighting between the two sides, the Tang Dynasty controlled the Zhangzhou coastal plain and other vast areas, and the barbarians were finally suppressed. Zhangzhou in the Tang Dynasty was not very prosperous.


The development of Zhangzhou entered the first climax in the Southern Song Dynasty. It has a greater impact on Zhangzhou’s opening of sea bans in the Ming Dynasty alone. “The prosperous cities and towns are one of the most prosperous towns, and thousands of sails in the ports are racing to send out” is a vivid historical portrayal of that time.


The third time: In the late ninth century, the three brothers Wang Chao, Wang Shenjun, and Wang Shenzhen ruled Fuzhou and Quanzhou, etc. Quanzhou dialect was formed.


At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the Huang Chao Rebellion occurred in China (AD 878). In the Tang Dynasty, the three brothers Wang Chao, Wang Shenjun, and Wang Shenzhen from Gushi County, Guangzhou, went south to quell the rebellion. After the rebellion was eliminated, Wang Chao was named the mighty army of Fujian. Jade makes. That is, this batch of people’s pavilions brought the Central Plains dialect of the 9th century.


Most of the third immigrants were from Guangzhou in Huainan Province in the Tang Dynasty. When Fujianese read the Four Books and Five Classics, this is the main source of some “reading sounds”.


At the end of the Ming Dynasty, scholars systematically organized the Hokkien dialect at that time and wrote the “Huiyin Baojian”, and the fifteen syllables were born.

min nan culture


Status of use

Fujian area

Due to the promotion of Mandarin Chinese and English and the influx of a large number of immigrants, Mandarin has become a public language. The three cities in southern Fujian are especially serious in Xiamen. At the same time, counties in northwest Fujian are influenced by Nanfeng and Guangchang in Jiangxi. The Gan language is widely spoken, but the Nannan language is the main language in the communication between locals and locals. Now the three cities in southern Fujian have established Minnan language training classes to facilitate foreign friends who come to Fujian for work, study, and business.


With the strengthening of the awareness of mother tongue protection and the promotion and development of Minnan culture, Xiamen Satellite TV, Quanzhou TV Station, and other TV stations mainly in Minnan have been established. In addition to self-produced programs, they have also introduced many Minnan TV dramas in Taiwan. In rural areas, local theater (such as opera, high A drama, puppetry, South Sound, etc.) still loved by the public.


Shanwei area

The majority of Shanwei City uses Chinese dialects. Chinese is divided into Fulco, Hakka, Vernacular (Cantonese), Zhanmi, Junhua, and Northern dialects. The Fulano dialect is mainly distributed in Shanwei City, Haifeng, and most areas of Lufeng, with a population of about 2.65 million. According to its phonetic characteristics, it can be divided into 8 tones and 7 tones, respectively Haicheng dialect, And Donghai dialect is the representative.


Taiwan area

In Taiwan in the early days of the Kuomintang administration, the Hokkien language was relatively declining Taiwan due to the promotion of the national language (Mandarin) by the Kuomintang government. People who spoke Hokkien would be called “Xia Hong Kong people”, “Taiwanese”, etc.


After the party government came to power, it vigorously promoted “local culture” and “love the country”, “love Taiwan”, “Taiwanese speak Taiwanese” and other activities, making Hokkien once again become a popular and powerful language in Taiwan, and “Taiwanese” also Becoming a representative of popular culture, speaking Hokkien has changed from a native dialect to a trendy, local and man. Many people from other provinces and Hakkas (such as courgettes) are also working hard to learn Hokkien.


Chaoshan area

Chaozhou dialect, the mother tongue of the Chaoshan area  , is well preserved. In addition to speaking Mandarin in schools and communicating with foreigners, local people still speak Chaozhou dialect in daily life, work, and business.

Status of use


Southeast Asia

English is the main language informal occasions. Hokkien in Southeast Asia is heavily influenced by English and Malay. In private occasions, Singaporeans usually speak Hokkien and occasionally mix English and Malay, but there are also many Malays and Indians. He is fluent in Hokkien.


Brunei: The Chinese population is 45,800, most of whom are South Fujianese. In the capital city of Bandar Seri Begawan, Hokkien in Quanzhou is spoken.


Myanmar: There are about 900,000 Chinese, of which 40% are from South Fujian and 3% are from Hainan. Zhangzhou-sound Hokkien is spoken.


Indonesia: The Chinese population is 6 million, of which more than half are from South Fujian, while Hainanese and Chaozhou are slightly less. Zhangzhou accent and Quanzhou accent Hokkien are spoken, and the pronunciation is similar to that of Malaysian Hokkien.


Laos: There are about 5,000 Chinese, and nearly 90% are Chaozhou people. Traffic Chaozhou tone Hokkien.


Malaysia: There are close to 6 million Chinese and 2 million Hokkiens. The populations of Chaozhou and Hainanese are ranked 4th and 5th among the dialect groups. The Hokkien dialect in Northern Malaysia prevails in Zhangzhou and Chaoshan dialects, while the Central and Southern Ma speaks Quanzhou and Chaozhou dialects. The Hainan dialect is popular in southern Malaysia and parts of the east coast. The East Ma speaks Quanzhou tones.


Philippines: The Chinese population is about one million, 90% of whom are South Fujianese, and most of them are from Jinjiang, Quanzhou. Speaking of Quanzhou tone Hokkien.


Singapore: Chinese population is more than 3 million, Minnan (Zhangzhou, Quanzhou) is about 1 million, Chaoshan is about 500,000.


Thailand: The Chinese population is close to 6 million, of which more than 40% are from Chaozhou, 18% from Hainan, and 16% from southern Fujian. Hokkien with Teochew accent is spoken. Only in Phuket and parts of southern Thailand are the Zhangzhou-sound Hokkien dialect.


Vietnam: The Chinese population is close to one million, and Chaozhou people account for 34%, Hokkiens 6%, Hainanese 2%, a total of 42%. Traffic Chaozhou tone Hokkien.


other areas

The total population of Hong Kong in 2004 was 6.854 million, and the Fujianese (mostly Hokkien ) were about 1.6 million, accounting for about 20% of the total population of Hong Kong. Affected by the local language, most people who can speak Hokkien are older generations over 50 years old. Some middle-aged people still have a lot of Hokkien accents when they speak Cantonese. Only Cantonese is spoken. As Hokkiens intermarry with other ethnic groups, they have generally switched to Hong Kong Cantonese.


Chinese Language – Cantonese

Cantonese is the English writing of Cantonese. This word has been used internationally for hundreds of years together with the English name Canton in Guangzhou. The term comes from the foreigner’s name Canton for Guangzhou. In the more authoritative “The Oxford English Dictionary”, Canton explained: sb. The name of the city in southern China.




The following paragraph is excerpted from an English Canton Guide (Canton Guide, by Kerr, John Glasgow, 1824-1901) written by John Glasgow Kerr published in 1889, which involves foreigners’ views on Guangzhou and the provincial capital of Guangdong at that time, “Guangzhou House” expression. The City of Canton is situated on Pearl River, 90 miles from Hongkong, On Lat 23 degrees 7 minutes N., and Long. 113 degrees 14 1/2 minutes E.


It is the Capital of Kwong-tung Province and contains about 1,000,000 inhabitants. It is the residence of the Viceroy of the two Kwong Provinces, and of high military and civil officials of the Province. It is also the seat of the officers of the Kwong Chau Department, and as the City is built in two Districts or Counties, it contains the Offices of two District Magistrates. In the article, “Canton” is used for “Guangzhou”, “Kwong-tung Province” “Guangdong Province”, “Kwong Chau Department” for “Guangzhou House”, and “Viceroy of the two Kwong Provinces” for “Governor of Guangdong and Guangxi”. The “two Districts or Counties” referred to as “The South China Sea and Panyu”. It can be seen that the distinction between the level of jurisdiction and place names at that time was quite clear.




The first argument is that Pu Taoya’s earliest use.


As to which country people spell Guangzhou as Canton, there are several theories, among which the following two are more representative. Researcher Zhao Liren of the Guangdong Academy of Social Sciences, who specializes in the history of Sino-foreign trade and the history of Macao, said that the first foreigners to go to Guangzhou were Portuguese in the 16th century.


The earliest source that can be found for the term Canton is the “Early Macau History” written by the Swedes, which mainly describes the situation of Macau and the Portuguese in China, in which the term Canton was proposed. As for when the Portuguese first called Guangzhou Canton, there is no modern textual research. Since then, the word Canton has also been used in British writings about Guangzhou.



The second argument is invented by the British.


However, a person in charge of the Guangzhou City Geographical Names Office believes that “Canton” is the old spelling of “Cantonese Wittoma” of the word “Guangzhou”, and “Wittoma” was a British diplomatic mission to China from 1841 to 1883. For the official’s name, he designed a set of Roman alphabet phonetic schemes for the phonetic notation of Chinese characters.


“Canton” is exactly the product of this spelling. In order to take care of the native languages ​​of the people everywhere, the National Government of the Republic of China used Cantonese venom to spell the names of local places, people, and buildings in areas where Cantonese was spoken in a large area in Guangdong Province. People in Guangzhou agree that Canton is the true transliteration of the Cantonese pronunciation of the word “Guangzhou”.


Due to the Chinese authorities’ policy of promoting Mandarin and Chinese poeticization in the 1970s, the names of Cantonese Wetoma celebrities were completely banned in Guangzhou and Guangdong Province, and they have only been retained on the ground of certain blocks in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan.


Many students in small cities in Guangdong do not know Cantonese Pinyin. Due to the influence of Hong Kong TV and books, and some buildings/businesses still use Cantonese Pinyin, some students at least know the existence of Cantonese Pinyin, and a small number of people understand it. how to use. Pui Ching Middle School resumed using the name Pui Ching Middle of Yuepin school in 2009 and returned to orthodoxy.

common expression


The third argument was first proposed by the French.


Note: Some people think that this is the first “Canton” proposed by the French. As for authenticity, further research is needed. In addition, there is a direct Cantonese transliteration name: “Kwang Chou”.




In foreign countries, many foreigners do not know what “Guangzhou” is. When talking about China, they only know Hong Kong and even Shanghai, but they don’t know Guangzhou. However, Canton and Cantonese (Cantonese) are unknown outside. Speaking of Canton, one naturally thinks of China’s foreign trade capital in the middle of the nineteenth century, which was once ranked fourth in the world. Speaking of Canton, one naturally thinks of the Maritime Silk Road in ancient China; when it comes to Canton, one naturally thinks of the Opium War and Humen.


Tobacco sales, Mr. Sun Yat-sen, and other earth-shattering history and figures; mentioning Canton naturally reminds people of the long and unique Cantonese language, culture, food, and traditions; mentioning Canton naturally reminds people of the famous Canton Fair twice a year).


Chinese Language – Northeastern Mandarin

Northeast Mandarin, yes Sino-Tibetan tonal language of the official discourse of the Chinese nationality is Heilongjiang ProvinceMost areas, Jilin Province、 Liaoning ProvinceNorth Central, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regioneast, Hebei ProvinceThe main dialect in the northeast, more than 170 cities and counties, and a population of about 120 million.
The subdivision of Northeast Mandarin can be divided into Ji Shen, Hafu slices, Heising slices, each slice can be divided into several small slices.
Northeast Mandarin as a whole is close MandarinIn fact, the Northeast dialect in the impression of outsiders is actually the Northeast Mandarin in some areas in the area where Northeast Mandarin speaks. Although the accents of different parts of the Northeast (except Liaodong) are slightly different, the difference is only the depth of the “Northeast Flavor”, there is no difference in vocabulary and language, and there is no major change in voice.




Northeast Mandarin is generally divided into three parts. Geographically, the Northeast Mandarin in Heilongjiang, most of Jilin and northern Liaoning and northeastern Inner Mongolia is close to Mandarin, while the Northeast Mandarin in other Northeast Mandarin-speaking areas in Liaoning is closer to the stereotypes of outsiders. The “Northeast Flavor” in my impression.
The Yinping tone of Northeast Mandarin is 33 and Mandarin is 55, which makes “Northeast Dialect” sound low.
In addition, in some Northeast Mandarin, such as Shenyang dialect, There is a phenomenon that r and y are not divided, and the flat tongue is not divided.
For example, “如, 于”; “页, 热” and other characters. In addition, some zero-consonant characters have a nasal sound before the old sayings in Songliao films, such as “arrangement (nān·pai)”; Mandarin, such as “国”, “福”, “职”, etc. are all pronounced as Shangsheng 214 in Northeast dialect. Some words retain the older pronunciation, such as “街 (gāi)” (see the group not palatalized); but there are also some groups of words that precede Mandarin, such as “客(qie)”.
learn Northeast Mandarin

Development History

The language of one party is the foundation of one party’s culture. Northeast Mandarin belongs to the branch of Mandarin dialect, and its tone is close to modern Chinese Mandarin, and people in other dialect areas can generally understand it. This has provided necessary conditions for the widespread of Northeast dialect across the country in recent years.
Northeast dialect is a Chinese dialect. The particularity of this dialect is reflected in the particularity of its source.
Although the Chinese language (mainly Yayan) and Chinese characters were the main body in ancient China, the pronunciation and appellation of different regions of the Chinese language were not the same. According to Yang Xiong’s ” dialect, is divided into twelve dialect areas, most of the northeast area belongs to the “Yan Dynasty dialect area.”
Since the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, ethnic groups have flowed from north to south, especially since the Ming and Qing dynasties, a large number of unemployed farmers have flowed into the Northeast. This has also promoted a good situation of cultural integration and formed a new historical period for Northeast Chinese dialect.

common words

Language Exchange

In the Northeast, once suffered Russians、 Japanese colonial aggression that lasted for half a century and the borrowing of language reflected the penetration of colonial culture. For example, “Sara Leng”, which means to speed up the speed, is to borrow the Russian “sand”; “Hey Daluo” (a small bucket with water), “Brady” (dress), “Sao Taroko” (soldier) It is the Russian transliteration; “Huolila” (an acute intestinal infectious disease), and later the word “cholera” in English or other loanwords, and so on.
The folks in the northeast inland only make one thing clear, not smart. Folk wisdom always wants to say something interesting, humorous, vivid, poetic, easy to use, and create a new kind of Language fun.
In Mandarin, it is vivid enough to say that two people or two groups of people are close together, using “hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder, heart-to-heart” as a metaphor, but it is still not satisfied among the folks. Two people can hold hands. Two groups of people cannot actually hold hands. It is even more unlikely that they will be “caring.” These are just metaphors in the official language.
As a result, the folks have created “heart-wrenching words” and “fat on the arms”, which are more vivid and vivid than “heart-to-heart”, and can be touched language.
Dialect and Mandarin are also being transformed, such as “cleaning”, the original meaning of clearing, sweeping clean, such as “you clean the rice bowl”, from small dialect to large-scale Mandarin, and even Mandarin Up.



Artificial character

First, vividness, from static language to dynamic language, and abstract language into vivid language.
Its vividness comes from labor, and many non-moving words are taken as moving expressions. Take “picking blind”, “breaking” and “pulling eyes” as examples. The three are very abstract words that justify the mental state of a person. People arrange unfounded lies, dialect called “pasting blindly”, “pasting blind” comes from the work of harvesting corn in the autumn harvest in rural areas, and picking out empty sticks without long grains is called “blind corn.” The use of “picking blind” to accuse and replace lying is not only vivid and accurate but also has a strong emotional color.
Similarly, “breaking” is also benefited from the labor of picking up the corn. The leaves of the corn need to be peeled off layer by layer. In the end, you can see the difference. It is used to describe the roots and distinguish the authenticity. It is also very vivid; another example is the “eight”. “The pope can’t be fiddled with” is used to describe bird-fighting activities that are quite distant and come from the countryside. Sprinkle a small amount of grain on an open area and install it on a rotating bamboo pole to fiddle with birds. Eight poles can’t beat a bird, it can be said to be too alienated. Up.
Second, Northeast Mandarin has great richness.
For example, drinking, not to drink, say “snap”, “complete”, “pao”, “pour”, “sip” and so on. “Deep feelings, palpate in one mouthful; light feelings, lick.”
At the wine table, guessing and ordering, the most obvious character. The top category is “beating” and “beating”; the connotations of “making trouble”, “engaging”, “grasping” and “reforming” are the most abundant. The common “this Gada” and “Na Gada”.
Third, a sense of humor.
The language of the Northeast people is full of ” Joy in hardship”The ridicule, humor, funny allegorical words, playful babbles, and knotty words are processed through gamification and poetry. Therefore, in the literary works of the duo, we prefer to use archaic language instead of Mandarin, rather to use native language instead of rigid conceptual language.
The most affectionate is the local accent. Once the duo expresses it to the artist, it feels humorous and funny.

Chinese Language – Sichuan Language

Sichuan Language also known as Bashu dialect, belongs to southwestern Mandarin Chinese. The current Sichuan dialect was formed during the great migration movement of ” Huguang fills Sichuan ” during the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty. It was formed by the gradual evolution and integration of the Shu dialect popular in Sichuan before the Ming Dynasty and the dialects of immigrants from Huguang, Guangdong, Jiangxi, and other places.

sichuan language

History development

Sichuan Language originates from Shu and Cuban, which are non-Han languages in ancient times. So far, the original layer of Sichuan dialect still retains “坝”(平地)、“姐”(母亲)、“养”(您), the vocabulary of ancient Shu and Cuban in the period. After that, the Sichuan dialect continued to develop and change along with the historical process of the Shu area and the replacement of immigration. After the Qin eradicated Shu, the Shu area gradually formed a distinctive Shu dialect belonging to the Chinese ethnic group. Later in the Ming and Qing dynasties, as a large number of immigrants from Huguang and other places entered Sichuan, the Shu dialect evolved and merged with the dialects of immigrants in various places, and finally formed the current Sichuan dialect.


Medieval period

In the Middle Ages, the economic and cultural development of the Shu region reached its peak. As an independent language area, the Shu language continued to develop. At this time, the Shu language was very independent and difficult to communicate with languages outside the Shu region. When Fan Chengda of the Song Dynasty lived in Shu, he recorded the following in the poem note of ” Bingshen Yuanri Anfu Temple Ceremony Tower ” in Volume 17 of ” Shihu Poetry Collection “: “The native sound of Shu people is extremely difficult to understand. “Yu”. Or when it was arrogant, it was considered to be China, and the practice has not been changed until now, and it has been concealed, and it has been changed to “Lu language.”

history development

It can be seen that the pronunciations of Shu and Zhongyuan are completely different. Taking the Shu language of the Song Dynasty as an example, first of all, comparing the rhyme part of the Shu language with the Tongyu of the Song Dynasty, the rhyme part has a different classification or return character. For example, the word “yan” of the first part of Yangshengyunhan is read by the “qi” of Ren Wenbu and Yahoo. The reading is the same as “bald” in the house candle. Secondly, the intermediate sounds of the Shu dialect tend to be colloquial, and the three yang sound rhymes are mixed in some characters.


At the same time, the Shuyu Shengniu preserved the relics of ancient sounds such as “Ancient No Tongue” and “Zhao Ergui Jing”. In addition, in terms of tones, Shu dialects are quite different in Ping Sheng Zi and Shang Qu Sheng Zi Gui Pai and Tong Yu. For example, the “Qing Yong Sentence” with the pronunciation of Gui Ping Sheng in Shu dialect “Qing” belongs to Ren Shang Sheng, “Yong Sentence” “Going back.


Distribution range

The population of Sichuan dialects is mainly distributed in the Envelope Basin, covering the entire Sichuan Province and Chongqing except for some non-Han ethnic communities (except Kai, which is one of the most populous Chinese branches.


Shu dialects have a high degree of internal interoperability and vocabulary, Grammar, phonology, etc. are relatively consistent, generally divided into four dialect areas as shown in the following figure according to the current reading situation of the ancient Rusheng: the western Sichuan film of the Rusheng Guiyangping, the Guanche Pian Minjiang small piece reserved by the Rusheng, and The Guan Chi Pian Renfu small piece of the sound of the return sound and the Guan Chi Pian Yamian small piece of the Rusheng Guiyinping.

distribution range


Features of Sichuan dialect

Compared with Mandarin, the affixes of the Sichuan dialect are quite different. First of all, the Sichuan dialect has some unique affixes that are not found in Mandarin. For example, the common verb affix “dao” in Sichuan dialect can be combined into “evaluation” (to force), “familiar” (guess), and “mato” (to bully) ), “Si Dao” (thought), “Xing Dao” (be careful of temptation), “Yin Dao” (not publicity) and “You Dao” (attention) and other common terms. Another example is “you” is also a very common verb affix in Sichuan dialect, which can be composed of “Cueto”, “Kantor”, “you”, “you”, “you”, “to discuss”, Common expressions such as “review the head”, such as “Diaoyucheng have fun?” in Sichuan dialect means “is Diaoyucheng fun?”


Second, although some affixes in the Sichuan dialect are also found in Mandarin, their scope of use and additional meanings are quite different. For example, the noun affix “zi” in the Sichuan dialect can form “bee” (bee) and “ear” (fungus). ), “Zizi” (fist), “Yangzi” (sheep), “Yanzi” (smoke), “Yanzi” (this year), “Next year” (next year) and other words that are not in Mandarin, and Sichuan dialect There are also “sub-molecules”, “jiaojiaozi”, “liangliangzi”, “Sinjin”, which are superimposed by quantifiers followed by the suffix “子”, which is used to express special usages with a small number, such as “You are a net “Give me some corners” in Sichuan dialect means “how can you only give me corners”.

Features of Sichuan dialect

In addition, there is no Er-suffix in the Beijing dialect, and the suffix “er” appears in the form of “er”, but in Sichuan dialect, there are “pants”, “hat”, “water”, “doer” and “steal”. There are a lot of suffixes such as “er”, “younger” and “goer”.


At the same time, the noun suffix “jia” can be used to express the opposition between people in Sichuan dialect, such as “girl’s house” and “erwazijia”, “women’s house” and “man’s house”, and “water’s house” and “Adult family” (in this case, the suffix “Jia” can also be overlapped to express contempt. For example, “the son of a child’s family, still cheesy” means “how can a boy be so stingy” in Chengdu dialect); on the other hand, ” The suffix “home” can also indicate the time, such as “spring home”, “daytime home”, “going home” and so on.


Chinese Language – Changsha dialect

Changsha dialect, namely Changsha dialect, belongs to New Xiang. The so-called Changsha dialect is distributed in the main urban area of Changsha with Wangcheng District, Central and southern Changsha County and Ningxiang CityThe language spoken in the Northeast (and Changsha CountyThe withWangcheng District dialect is slightly different from the urban dialect difference). As for Ningxiang City with Liuyang CityThe dialect of Liuyang is quite different from that of the urban area. Among them, the dialect of eastern Liuyang belongs to Gan Dialectwith Hakka dialect, Cannot communicate with Changsha dialect. The urban dialect of Changsha is basically the same as the dialect of Xiangtan urban area with Zhuzhou urban area, so the three can communicate with each other.
The characteristic of the Changsha dialect is that the ancient Quanzhou Initials word Shusheng is transformed into Unvoiced, which is the representative dialect of New Xiang. It is different from Mandarin Gu Quanzhuo Initials, Qinghua, flat sound, aspiration, and no aspiration. The following groups of words Changsha dialect initial are the same: (love=full) (tao=dao) (same=dong), while the former in Mandarin is Unvoiced.
Changsha dialect common words

Voice of Changsha dialect

First of all, in the old school of Changsha dialect, InitialsThere is 23, VowelThere is 45 and tone6. The new school tongue disappeared, Initials 20, the back nasal disappeared, Vowel 39, all less than Mandarin (Initials 22 Vowel 39, tone 4)
Second, there is no Changsha dialect Northern dialectUbiquitous in Erhua sound.
Third, the Changsha dialect retains the entering tone, but the end of the entering tone disappears. Example: Each of the following pairs of Chinese characters is pronounced with the same tone in Mandarin, but in Changsha dialect mid-tone is different. “Yi” with “One”, “Ba” with “Eight”, “Wife” with “Seven”, “Wu” with “House”, “Vegetable” with “Uncle”. In the Changsha dialect, the second of each of the above pairs of Chinese characters is sounded.
Fourth, the whole in ancient Chinese VoicedIn the Changsha dialect Unvoiced. The pronunciation of each of the following words is the same, but only in together is the difference on it: Brand—Baitong—Dongkui—Guiqiao—Jiao Porcelain—Zhu Bed—Zhuang.
Voice of Changsha dialect

The Sayings of Changsha Dialect

Dai Doula Hit——Also across the bridge
Interpretation: (with the imaginary thing) far away, far away. Hit, kiss; bridge. In the Changsha dialect, the gear on the abacus is called “bridge”. The so-called “one bridge” means that two numbers are not in the same gear, such as “5” with ten in the single digit. The “4” of the number “46” is separated by a bridge, so it extends the meaning of being far apart.
Example: He came to the unit for a long time, so he wanted to be the section chief. It was Dai Douli Hit—Also across the bridge!
Note: During the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty Xu Ke”Qing Barnyard Notes·Suzhou Dialect” received “wearing a hat to kiss each other”, which means “things are obstructed and cannot be fulfilled”, which is similar to this idiom.
Vocabulary: Eyebrows grow three inches long
Interpretation: This term is probably a bit strange to the new Changsha people. It means that the food is dirty (see note for details).
Example: The vegetables are sloppy, and the eyebrows are three inches long! /The guy at that restaurant on Dolle Street, how good is that? Eyebrows grow three inches long!
Note: In old Changsha, there was a custom of using garbage as fertilizer. The dirtier and smellier the garbage, the more nutrient it is, and the more it enables plants to grow. It can make the eyebrows three inches long, which is extremely dirty.
Really love the individual
“Lover” doesn’t just refer to those in the house Guest(Wife). in Changsha dialects, lover, sometimes used as a predicate structure. In Changsha, the term “lover”, the most frequently heard phrase in street talks is “Really love the individual”. The strong love and hatred of Changsha people can be seen in the death to life. The word analysis is as follows:
Vocabulary: Lover (also said “Lover Son”)
Interpretation: cute and lovable.
Example: How many lovers do you order? /Your daughter-in-law, dimples are gibberish when you talk, I don’t know how many people love you to death! (Changsha Traditional Flower Drum Opera “Xu Blind Man Makes a Shop”)/Maomao can crawl and laugh, love him to death!
Yiyang’s traditional flower drum opera “Youchun” also has: “Oh my godmother, then MateBorn to be a real lover. “
Note: Yiyang belonged to the old in the Qing Dynasty Changsha Twelve generation of the counties, its Huagu Opera is also based in Changsha MandarinFor the unified stage language. “Lover Son” has the same meaning, but no other elements can be inserted in the middle.
The Sayings of Changsha Dialect

Inheritance and development

Xiangyin winds around, Chu languageYunfei, Changsha dialect, full of charm. You are a native of Changsha, so naturally, you know what it means and are fascinated; if you are not a native of Changsha, as long as you speak Xiang dialect, you will be infiltrated by it YuantongMoved by, implication, pungency, and humor, leaving a deep and indelible impression. There are a lot of distinctive street talks in Changsha, but time has changed, and there are not a few that slowly disappear. It’s a pity. Feeling this, I hope we can explore, understand, appreciate, record, and pick the green leaves and red flowers in the language forest of this place so that the warm feeling will stay in our hearts forever.
In Changsha families, you can see this situation: grandparents mainly speak Changsha dialect, and grandchildren and granddaughters mainly speak Mandarin after going to kindergarten. They use each others’ common language instead, although what happens during the replacement is PidginLanguage (plastic language). The same is true for the culture that accompanies the language. It is difficult for us to protect dialects intact, and it is also difficult to protect culture intact. In addition to the preservation of cultural heritage through written language with audio and video, we cannot protect it forever in reality, but can only delay aging with death. Of course, we should not be too pessimistic, and actively protect the dialect with culture that is about to disappear, and don’t let the culture stop suddenly and make people at a loss.