Chinese Religion – Protestantism

Protestantism is called the three major schools of Christianity along with Catholicism and Orthodox Church. Including the 16th century European Reformation from the Ecumenical Church of Rome (the Grand Duke of Christianity) and the emergence of new denominations: Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, and more sectarian afterward from these sects continue to split off. Protestantism is also called “Corrected Church” and “Anti-Luo Zong”. China often uses the term ” Christianity ” to refer solely to Protestantism. The folks often call it the Church of Jesus, because they protest against the Roman Catholic Church (that is, the Catholic Church ) and do not recognize the pope status of the Roman bishop. Therefore, the West generally refers to Protestantism as the “Anti-Roman Sect” or “Protest Sect”. This term originated from the German word “Protestanten” (protestant), which originally referred to the Protestant princes and city representatives who protested the resolution to restore Catholic privileges in the German Reichstag in 1529 and later became the common name of all Protestant denominations. Mainly distributed in the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, the five Nordic countries, and the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries.




Protestantism development in China

Late Qing Dynasty

At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, when Catholics were working hard to carry out missionary work in China, some Protestant Christians in the UK also began to pay attention to preaching to China. Until 1807 the British missionary Robert Morrison instructions from the London Missionary Society to send missionaries to China. Due to the refusal of the ship of the East India Company, Morrison had to take the money transfer to New York on January 31, 1807, and on May 12 of the same year, he took the trigeminal ship to bypass the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean and passed the Strait of Malacca on September 4. After arriving in Macau one day, he sneaked into Guangzhou three days later, stayed secretly in an American warehouse, learned Chinese, and became the first Protestant missionary to come to China.
On the ninth day of the ninth month of the lunar calendar in 1814, Morrison baptized Cai Gao, who helped him with his printing work, and became the first Chinese Protestant Christian. Morrison worked for the East India Company for 25 years and devoted himself to text evangelism, translation, and printing of the Bible. He published the “New Testament” in 1813 and the “Old Testament” in 1823, most of which he translated himself. In 1823, Morrison went to Malacca, Singapore inspection and any temporary Malacca Ying Wa College priest; the fall of that year returned to Guangzhou Li Liang as ministers and as the son of Liang Liang Jinde Baptist. Since Morrison and other pioneer missionaries came to China to preach, some Protestant missions in Europe, America, and other countries have also begun to pay attention to China. Bridgman (Elijah Coleman Bridgman, 1801- 1861 years) by the United States Congregational (American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ) delegation, missionary to China in 1830, is an American church pioneer missionary work in China in the early in history-US relations on have a certain influence. Pizhiwen arrived in Macau in 1830 and took a boat to Guangzhou on the 25th, where he stayed in the American Chamber of Commerce. After that, he participated in the publication, education, and medicine of early Christianity in China, and participated in the founding of some early Christian groups. He founded the first English monthly magazine of Chinese Christianity, Chinese Repository, and served as an editor, aiming to investigate and publish China’s meteorology, geography, production, business information, and other information, and introduce China to the West Political, historical, legal, custom, literary, religious and humanistic conditions. “China Series” was the main material for Westerners to understand China at that time. In November 1834, he served as the Chinese secretary of The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China (The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China). In January 1836, the Morrison Educational Association was established. Its purpose was to open and fund schools in China, teach Chinese youth to read Chinese and English and pass on various Western knowledge to them through the media. Pi Zhiwen served as the communications secretary.
Before the Opium War, Protestant Christianity had been introduced into China through the efforts of Morrison and others. However, foreigners could not enter China as missionaries, let alone enter the mainland of China. Therefore, the number of Christian Protestant missionaries was not large and the influence was not large. Large, not spread widely. After the Opium War, with the conclusion of a series of unequal treaties, foreign missionaries flooded into China under the protection of the “missionary clause”. Moreover, Protestant Christian missionaries have also been sent into China by foreign missionaries from various countries. In a short period of time, more than 130 foreign missionaries have come to China. In terms of nationality, these missionaries mainly belong to Britain, the United States, Germany, Canada, and other countries; in terms of denominations, they mainly belong to the Anglican Church, Baptist Church, Congregational Church, Lutheran Church, Presbyterian Church, Supervisory Committee, and Mainland Church. Department etc. [29]  Among them, regarding the development of Protestant Christianity in China, we have to specifically mention the Mainland China Association founded by Dai Desheng in 1865. This special mission organization that crosses nationalities and transcends sects has become the Chinese Protestant Christianity and even the entire Christianity expansion to the whole of China, which is of landmark significance.

Republic of China

When the Qing government was overthrown, China entered a new era. Chinese society has experienced profound social changes, the most fundamental of which is the Revolution of 1911 and the establishment of the Republic of China. [30] After the establishment of the Republic of China government, many people who held important positions in the government believed in Christianity. According to Wang Zhixin’s statistics, Christians account for more than 65% of the people in the Guangdong provincial government. This historical background provides another excellent opportunity for the development of the Christian mission. In addition to the scale and regularization of churches in various places and the rapid development in numbers, evangelism and its missionary work were also widely carried out in every corner of society at that time. Protestant Christianity was also in education, medical treatment, text publishing, and Philanthropy and other fields are booming.
In the 20th century, there was a church elementary school near almost every church. According to incomplete statistics, by 1920, there were 5,637 primary schools with 151,582 students; 962 senior primary schools with 32,899 students; and 291 middle schools with 15,213 students. There is also an objective number of normal schools. At the same time, the church is also committed to the construction of higher education institutions. Missionary universities have been established one after another. Some missionary universities are jointly established by several missionary churches of different denominations. The Chinese Missionary University Presidents’ Meeting held in Shanghai in October 1919 established the China Missionary University Federation. The members are Yanjing University, Qilu University, Jinling University, Jinling Women’s University, Soochow University, Zhejiang Shanghai University, St. John’s University, Zhejiang University, Fujian Union University, Wenhua University, Boshu Academy, West China Union University, Lingnan University, Yali University. The number of students in these 14 universities reached 2017, and 10 of these 14 universities are in secondary schools attached to their campuses. The teachers and equipment of these secondary schools are higher than those of ordinary middle schools.
The medical career of Protestant Christians in China is an important part of the missionary career in China. Since the 20th century, with the rise of the social gospel, many missions have paid more attention to the development of the church’s medical career. More importantly, Chinese society has an increasing demand for new-style medical care. In less than 20 years, foreign doctors have increased by 54%, and hospitals and pharmacies have increased by 165%. [33]  After entering the Republic of China, all Protestant Missionary Society in many churches across the country opened the hospital, such as Fujian Tongan Hospital, Changle holy church hospitals, Hebei Hejian China Holy Cross Hospital, Taizhou Gospel Hospital, Changzhou Wujin hospitals; including The newly established church hospitals in Lu province mainly include Chengdu Renji Hospital in Sichuan, Suining Boji Hospital, Ziliujing Renji Hospital for Men and Women, Xufu Mingde Women’s Hospital, etc., Hengyang Renji Hospital in Hunan, Xinhua Xinyi Hospital, Taoyuan Wenjin Hospital, etc. And so on, Jiujiang Life Living Water Hospital in Jiangxi, Guling Zhonghua Puren Hospital, etc., Xiangyang Tongji Hospital in Hubei, Kunming Huidian Hospital in Yunnan, Xi’an Guangren Hospital in Shaanxi, etc. According to statistics, in the five years from 1919 to 1924, as many as 38 missionary hospitals were built by the mission. There are a total of 326 church hospitals and 244 pharmacies in each province.

New China

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, how to face this new society that is different from any previous society and how to survive and adapt to the new China under the leadership of the Communist Party is a serious issue for Christianity. In the social background of the time, the victory of the Chinese revolution also broke the relationship between China and Western countries led by the United States. At that time, the Chinese church, which mainly relied on the support of foreign mission associations, faced great difficulties and faced great economic and ideological challenges. Many Christian leaders estimated that certain difficulties would occur in the Christian church in the future, and hoped to continue to receive sympathy and support from overseas missions. In the autumn of 1949, 19 members of the upper echelons of the Chinese church jointly issued “An Open Letter to the Foreign Mission Department” to remind “foreign friends” We have noticed the difficulties encountered by our Christian work in the current situation, the responsibilities we should bear, the changes in policies, and the adjustment of external relations.”
On July 28, 1950, “The Ways of Chinese Christianity in the Construction of New China” (the “Three-Self Declaration” ) was published, and China’s Three-Self Patriotic Movement was officially launched. At the beginning of the development of New China, Chinese Protestant Christianity faced another major challenge, that is, the situation of China’s anti-rightist expansion. In the historical background of the Cultural Revolution, China’s Protestant Christianity faced major problems such as shrinking faculty, a sharp reduction in meeting places, a sharp decline in the number of believers, and economic difficulties for the church. Under the circumstances at that time, in the first half of 1958, Christian joint worship began to appear, and until the end of 1958, churches across the country basically realized joint worship. United worship was produced under a special political situation, but its development was relatively stable and has continued to this day, bringing the Chinese church into a period of “post-denominationalism”.
The “Cultural Revolution” swept across China in 1966, and Chinese Protestant Christianity went through this severe disaster along with the whole of China. At this time, family gatherings became the only form of Christian activities, and the countryside became the main place for Christian activities and development. At the same time, this special history also deepened the believers’ distrust of the government and the Three-Self Patriotic Association.
In December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of China’s Eleventh Central Committee was held, China ushered in reform and opening up, and the development of Christianity in China also ushered in spring again. To meet the needs of the majority of Christians to live a religious life, the two Christian churches that have been restored and established in various places have tried their best to withdraw churches and resume worship. By the 1980s, major churches in various places were restored one after another, and a large number of churches sprung up. One or two churches were built every two or three days nationwide.  Including the Jinling Theological Seminary, including the Cultural Revolution in the process of being shut down across the country seminary school, it has been restored. At the same time with the increase of the faithful, for theological team construction of more and more urgent, in the restoration of the original theology At the same time, a total of 22 two-year to four-year seminaries were established.
Today, the development of Chinese Protestantism in China has become more and more vibrant. With the deepening of theological ideology, the quality of clergy and believers has been comprehensively improved. Protestant Christianity in China has become an important page of China’s multiculturalism. With the further development of China and its own prosperity and strength, the rise and self-confidence of the Chinese nation have also made Chinese Christianity an important contact point for China to open up and communicate closely with the world.

Chinese Religion – Chinese Catholic

Catholicism, together with Eastern Orthodox and Protestantism, is the three major sects of Christianity. Catholicism is also called “Public Church”, originally meaning “universal” and “duke’s”. The Latin name of the Catholic Church is Ecclesia Catholica Romana, literally translated as ” Rome Catholic Church “, transliterated as “Jatli Church”, and freely translated as “Roman Catholic Church”. When it was introduced to China in the 16th century, its followers called the god they worshipped as “God”, so it was called Catholicism in China. Catholics believe in Jesus Christ and honor Mary as our Virgin. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical teaching system and church management system. Catholic religious rituals there are seven, known as the “seven sacraments,” namely Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation, Kamijina, confession, marriage, extreme unction.






In the Tang Dynasty, Nestorians, a faction of the Christian Church that was not yet divided, were introduced into China, called Nestorianism, and then died out with Tang Wuzong’s destruction of Buddhism. Nestorianism denied that the Virgin Mary was the mother of God and proclaimed that the divinity and humanity of Jesus were separate, so he was considered a heresy, persecuted by the Eastern Roman Empire, and exiled to Persia and the East.

Yuan Dynasty

Catholicism was first introduced into China in the Yuan Dynasty. In 1294, Franciscan Franciscans Meng Gaoweinuo came to China as an envoy of the Holy See and was allowed to set up churches in the capital to preach. This was the official introduction of Catholicism into China. It spread mainly in the upper echelon of the palace and was interrupted by the Yuan Dynasty’s fall.

Ming and Qing

In the 16th century, the Jesuits headed by Matteo Ricci once again introduced Catholicism to China. On September 12, 1645, the Ministry of Communication of the Holy See issued a ministerial order on the issue of Chinese beliefs:
(1)It is absolutely forbidden to enter the City God Temple to worship the City God.
(2) It is absolutely forbidden to enter the Confucian Temple to worship Confucius.
(3) It is absolutely forbidden to enter the ancestral hall to worship ancestors.
(4) It is absolutely forbidden to set up altars or stand memorial tablets for the ancestors, not to mention praying or offering sacrifices to the ancestors.
During the reign of Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, because the Holy See provoked a ” ceremonial dispute “, Chinese believers were not allowed to respect Confucius and worship their ancestors, and Catholic churches in all parts of China were not allowed to hang large plaques that imitated the “Respect to Heaven” given to Tang Ruowang by Emperor Kangxi. As a result, Emperor Kangxi banned religion, and Catholicism fell into a trough again.
On March 19, 1715, Pope Clermont XI issued a papal edict “Since That Day” prohibiting Chinese Catholics from worshiping the sky and offering sacrifices to Confucius:
(1)Western locals use the word “Deus” (Deus [God]) to call the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all things. This word is hard to use in China, so the Westerners in China and those who merge into the Catholic Church use the word ” God “. The word has been for a long time. From now on, the word “heaven” or “God” is not allowed to be used, only the Lord of the heavens and the earth. If not suspended, the “Respect” word of plaque, if not suspended, i.e. suspension is not necessary, was suspended Ruoyi Church within, that is when removed, allowed to hang.
(2)In the spring and autumn seasons, the ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius and ancestors. Those who enter the religion are not allowed to be the chief priest or deacon, and those who join the religion are not allowed to stand here, because this is the same as heresy.
(3) All officials or scholars, Juren, or health officials who have entered the Catholic Church are not allowed to enter the Confucian Temple to salute on the first and 15th of each month. There may be newly appointed officials, Xinde Jinshi, and Xinde appointees who are not allowed to enter the Confucian Temple to salute.
(4) Those who enter the Catholic Church are not allowed to enter the ancestral hall to perform all rituals.
(5)Anyone who enters the Catholic Church, either at home, on the tomb, or in mourning, is not allowed to bow. Or people of the original and other teachers are not allowed to do this ceremony. Because it’s still heretical. Anyone who enters the Catholic Church, or that I have never done anything heresy, I just want to repay the meaning, I do not seek blessings, nor do I seek avoidance, even if there are such speakers.
(6)When people who meet other religions perform this ritual, those who have become Catholics, if they want to be careful, are afraid of right and wrong, they have to stand by the side and make them.
(7)Anyone who enters the Catholic Church is not allowed to leave the tablet at home following Chinese rules, because there are words such as “spiritual God Lord “, which also means that there is a soul on the tablet. To set up a memorial tablet, only the name of the dead person is allowed. Furthermore, if there is no heresy in the practice of the memorial tablet, it is okay to stay at home like this, but besides the memorial tablet should be written the Catholic principle of honoring parents.
Even though I have so determined above, there are other reasons outside of China. Those who have no heresy or are not similar to heresy, such as the Qi family’s rule of the country, can be followed. Today there are feasible and unfeasible rituals, and both are determined by the envoy of the king. Some people who are not contrary to Catholicism are allowed to do it, and those who are contrary to it are not allowed to do it.
In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV in the Pope’s decree “From the Holy Will of God”, “The dissent rests, and the hearts of the people are full. Up to now for two hundred years, all provinces have preached priests, regardless of the country or the meeting, and fully comply with the Pope’s decree. Promote the Orthodox Church of God, follow the same path, stand together, and there is no difference between the two sides, and the holiest of the holy religion is more and more obvious. “It is forbidden for missionaries to reconsider the issue of respecting the heavens and offering sacrifices to the ancestors of Confucius. Deny the eight workarounds of Charles Ambrose Mezzabarba, the special envoy of Clermont XI, and demand the resolute implementation of the “Since That Day” ban.
In response to the interrogation of the bishop of Jilin, Auguste Ernest Desire Marie Gaspais, the Puppet Manchukuo government replied: “The sole purpose of the Confucian worship ceremony is to show respect for Confucius, absolutely without religious qualities.” There is a precedent for the previous Japanese shrine incident. Pope Pius XI (r.1922-1939) therefore issued an order in 1935, requiring the bishop of the Diocese of Manchuria to carefully confirm that the consecrated kong has no religious characteristics, and the priests are doing it. After the oath against “Chinese etiquette”, we should wait for the guidance of the bishops to avoid doubts and disputes.
Until December 8, 1939, to establish diplomatic relations with China, Pius XII had a loose attitude towards Confucian etiquette, approved the Ministry of Communication and Communication Order “Plane compactum est”, and revoked the prohibition of “sacrificing ancestors and respecting Confucius” and missionaries. “Oath” obeys the provisions of the prohibition:” believers are allowed to participate in the ceremony of worshiping Confucius; the portrait or tablet of Confucius can be placed in the church school, and bows are allowed; if believers must attend public ceremonies with superstition, they must be passive It is permissible and appropriate to bow before the deceased or his portrait or tablet. “However, the Holy See does not admit that the previous encyclical is wrong, but believes that the religious concepts of ancestor worship and Confucian worship were in the past. After hundreds of years, it has become a secular activity, so it can be allowed at discretion. However, the secularization of Confucianism was due to the inadequacy of Chinese education, which runs counter to its religious nature. The ancestors were the medium through which the Han people communicated with the gods. Confucius said: “Making sacrifices to the gods is like being present, and offering sacrifices to the gods is like being present.” Merely bowing is against Chinese etiquette.

Modern times

After the Opium War in the mid-19th century, Western missionaries began to preach quickly in China relying on the protection of unequal treaties. From the very beginning, the Catholic mission in China has strong colonialism. Foreign priests control the various powers of the Chinese Catholic Church. Chinese clergy have long been in a position of powerlessness.
The Ministry of Communication of Rome promulgated the “Plane Compertum” order to allow Chinese faithful and missionaries to worship Kong Jingzu. The reason is a fact that the situation has changed and the religious content of worshiping the ancestor of Khon Kyen has been vulgarized, so it can be regarded as a social ceremony. However, only “God” can be used to call the supreme pure God revealed by Jesus Christ, and the names “Heaven” and “God” are forbidden, which are still valid today (see Pope Benedict XIV, “From the Holy Will of God” Ex quo Singulari, Charter 3, July 5, 1742, especially No. 10).


After liberation, the Catholic Church launched the “Three-Self” (autobiography, autonomy, and self-support) movement, turning Catholicism from an imperialist aggression tool into an independent religious enterprise run by Chinese believers.
In 1950, Catholics in Guangyuan County, Sichuan Province, China, under the advocacy of Father Wang Liangzuo, published on November 30 the “Catholic Self-Reliance and Reform Declaration” centered on autonomy, self-support, and autobiography, and proposed to cut off the connection with imperialism. Establish a new “Three-Self” church. At the beginning of the liberation period, there were about 2.7 million Catholics, and by 2006 there were about 15 million. On July 28, 2002, Ying Mulan and the other 6 nuns from the Catholic Joseph Sisters’ House made a permanent wish at the mass of the largest Catholic church in Beijing— Xishku Church —to devote themselves to Christ forever. Serve the church. They are the third batch of life-long nuns of the Sister Joseph Sisters of the Catholic Diocese of Beijing with a history of 130 years and the first batch of life-long nuns cultivated by the Beijing Church after the founding of New China. After the nuns made the vow, they received the symbol of the life-long vow-the ring and replaced the flower crown on their head when they entered the church with the crown-the crown worn by Christ Jesus during the crucifixion. The Sister Joseph Sisters of the Catholic Diocese of Beijing was founded in Beijing in 1872 by a French priest and three Chinese nuns.
During the Cultural Revolution, normal religious activities in China were disrupted. After the reform and opening up, freedom of religious belief was guaranteed, and the association was restored in 1986. By 2002, there were more than 50 nuns. Xinhua News Agency reported on August 5, 2002, according to Fu Tieshan, Chairman of the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association and Bishop of Beijing, that since China’s reform and opening up, the implementation of the policy of freedom of religious belief, especially the training of a new generation of Catholic clergy, has enabled the development of Chinese Catholicism. Present a derivative. The Chinese Catholic Church has 100 dioceses, 15 million followers, 5,000 churches and clubs open, and 12 seminaries of theology and philosophy.
Since the reform and opening up, there have been more than 1,500 young priests trained and ordained by the Catholic Church in China, and more than 100 young priests have been sent overseas by the church for further study. Besides, the Chinese Catholic Church has 3,000 young nuns who have made initial wishes, and more than 200 nuns have made lifelong wishes. About 100,000 Chinese Catholics are baptized every year, and more than 3 million copies of the Bible are printed. On August 5, 2002, the Beijing Institute of Catholicism and Culture, which focuses on the study of the relationship between Catholicism and Chinese culture, was formally established in Beijing, marking a new stage in Chinese Catholic academic research activities. The Beijing Institute of Catholicism and Culture is a research institution approved by the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Religion and affiliated with Beijing’s Catholic Diocese, the Beijing Catholic Patriotic Association, and the Beijing Catholic Academic Affairs Commission. The director is Father Zhao Jianmin, and the researchers are all cultivated by New China. Clergy. The purpose of the institute is to explore the positive factors in Catholicism at multiple levels and in all directions, serve the society of Catholicism, promote the localization of the church, cultivate the human spirit, and contribute to the power of Catholicism. The future research direction of the Institute is to explore the positive factors in the values advocated by Catholicism. Specific topics include Catholicism and ethics, Catholicism and culture, Catholicism and art, etc. At the same time, the institute will actively carry out Christian and religious cultural exchange activities at home and abroad, through cultural exchanges to achieve mutual understanding and promote the traditional culture of the Chinese nation.

Chinese Religion – Chinese Islam

Islam first emerged on the Arabian Peninsula by Mecca, Muhammad, in the seventh century AD, and was introduced to China from West Asia and the Middle East in the middle of the seventh century. In China, it was formerly called Da Shi Fa, Da Shi Jiao, Tian Fang Jiao, Muslims, Islam, Islam, and Islam. After more than 1,000 years of dissemination and development in the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties, it has become one of China’s five major religious beliefs, with about 30 million followers. Islam has different titles in different historical periods in China. It was called “Da Shijiao” in the Song and Yuan Dynasties, “Tianfangjiao” or “Islam” in the Ming Dynasty, “Halal” in the late Ming and Qing Dynasties, and “Islam” in the Republic of China. Since 1956, it has been collectively referred to as Islam. There are 10 ethnic groups, including Hui, Uygur, Kazakh, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Salar, Tajik, Uzbek, Baoan, and Tatar.
After a long period of dissemination, development, and evolution, an Islamic belief system with national and regional characteristics has been formed. The Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties were the main periods when Islam spread in China.
According to the national census, the Muslim population in mainland China is about 30 million. Most of the urban and rural areas in all provinces (regions) of the country live in Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Yunnan, Shandong, Shanxi, Anhui, Beijing, Tianjin, and other regions. Muslims are also distributed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, which are characterized by large and small concentrations. Mosques of varying sizes have been built in Muslim communities, forming Muslim communities centered on mosques.

Development path

Incoming period

The vast majority of Chinese Muslims are Sunni and follow the teachings of the Hanafi school. A very small number of Xinjiang are Shiite Ismaili. The various schools of Sufism have extensive influence in the Northwest. Historically, due to the different time and channels of the introduction of Islam into various ethnic regions, as well as the social and historical environment and cultural background of each ethnic group, the spread and development of Islam in China is divided into inland Islam (Chinese language) and Islam in Xinjiang. ( Turkic language family ) Two major families.
The academic circles are still inconclusive when Islam was introduced into mainland China. It is generally believed that Quanzhou and Guangzhou were introduced from Arabia to China in 651 (the second year of Yonghui in the Tang Dynasty). According to Chinese historical records “Old Tang Book” and ” Cefu Yuangui “, this year the third Islamic Caliph Osman (reigned from 644 to 656) sent envoys to Chang’an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty, and met with Tang Gaozong and introduced Islamic teaching The process of unification with Arab countries. For the first time, the Arab Empire officially sent envoys to China, which had a significant impact on the subsequent extensive political, economic, and cultural exchanges between China and Arab countries, as well as the coming of Muslim merchants to the east.
Therefore, historians generally regarded this year as The beginning of the introduction of Islam into China. Besides, there are various theories in Chinese historical materials such as “Sui Kaihuang”, “Tang Wu Dezhong”, “Tang Zhenguan Early Years”, “Early Eighth Century” and other theories. These statements are mostly the words of some scholars or the Ming Dynasty The description of Muslim folklore since the Qing Dynasty is therefore still difficult to conclude.

Tang and Song Dynasty

The 600 years from the second year of Tang Yonghui (651) to the end of the Southern Song Dynasty was the period of the early spread of Islam in China. At this time of the Tang Dynasty and the Arab Empire (big food) are prosperous period, things in the two countries across the east-west overland ” Silk Road ” and the South China Sea to the Persian Gulf sea “Spice Route” of the two countries Maintain frequent and friendly exchanges. Great food envoys and “tribute envoys” kept coming to China.
According to the “Old Tang Book”, from 651 to 798 Arab envoys came to Tang 39 times. Arab and Persian Muslim merchants came to China in an endless stream. After coming to China, most of them concentrated in Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Yangzhou, Hangzhou, Mingzhou (Ningbo) along the southeast coast of China, and went deep into Chang’an and Kaifeng inland. They were engaged in the sale of spices, ivory, jewelry, medicinal materials, and rhino horn. Brought back to China silk, tea, porcelain, and other commodities. The Chinese call them “fan guest”, “fan merchant” and “Hu Jia” etc. Because the Tang and Song governments encouraged commercial trade, many people stayed in China for a long time, calling them “live in Tang”. In the Tang Dynasty, there were many Arabs and Persians who lived abroad or settled in China. According to the records of the third year of Zhenyuan in the ” Zizhi Tongjian “, since the reign of Emperor Xuanzong Tianbao (742~756), the “hu businessmen” of the great food country, “stay for a long time or forty years”, “live in peace and do not want to return.”, “People with fields and houses” “Four thousand people”. Before the first year of Emperor Suzong’s Yuan Dynasty (760), there were at least one to two thousand people living in the area of ​​Yangzhou. According to the Tang Dynasty monk Jianzhen in the ” Tang Da Monk Dongzheng Biography “, the Persian villages that lived on Hainan Island during the Tianbao period “traveled north and south for three days, traveled east and west for five days, and the villages were the same.”
The 9th-century Arab businessman Suleiman’s ” Insights on China and India” also stated that in the late Tang Dynasty, a peasant uprising led by Huang Chao captured Guangzhou, and there were as many as 120,000 Arabs, Persians, Jews, and Christians living here. In the Song Dynasty, the scale of foreign trade and commerce developed again, and the number of Arabs and Persians who came to China increased dramatically compared with that in the Tang Dynasty. They are mostly concentrated in Guangzhou and Quanzhou, and there are tens of thousands in Quanzhou alone. To take care of their living habits, the local authorities in China set up the “Fanfang” area inhabited by fans from various countries and allowed them to marry the Han people and breed offspring. According to the records of Zhu or “Pingzhou Ketan” in the Song Dynasty, there were Arabs surnamed Liu marrying clan daughters in Guangdong at the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, so there were records of “Native Fanke” and “Fifth Generation” Native Franke. The Qing Dynasty scholar Gu Yanwu’s “Tianxia Jun Guoli Disease Book” contains: “Since the Tang Dynasty, he set up a good messenger’ in Guangzhou, and he became a merchant and set up a household since the Song Dynasty, Building stones to connect the city with the eldest offspring.” According to recent research, Guangzhou Fanfang is in the “southern of the city” and “the north bank of the Pearl River”, and Quanzhou is in “the southern suburbs of the city, bordering Jinjiang”. During the Southern Song Dynasty, many big food giants appeared in these two places. They were “rich and prosperous for a while” and had considerable socioeconomic status. Muslim merchants from the food country lived or settled in China and introduced Islam to China. In the “Fan fang”, the Chinese authorities appointed a Muslim of Nian Gao Deshao as the “fan leader”, responsible for managing Fanfang affairs, presiding over religious activities such as worship, handling civil lawsuits among Muslims, and soliciting foreign businessmen to trade in China. The religious beliefs, customs, and ethics of the fans “all act by the Quran, Hadith and Islamic customs”. “Pingzhou Can Talk” also contains: “Fan people’s clothing is different from that of China, and their diet is the same as that of China.” They also established mosques and Muslim public cemeteries where they lived, and the influence of Islam expanded. Now Guangzhou Huaisheng Mosque, Quanzhou Qingjing Si, Yangzhou Crane Temple, Hangzhou really teach temple and so on, are all ancient Islamic temples built during this period. The volume of “Zhu Fan Zhi” records the tomb of Quanzhou, saying: “There is a fan business called Shi Nai, a big cannibal, living in the south of the spring, light wealth and charity, with the customs of the west, making a cluster of graves in the southeast corner of the city. Cover up the remains of Hu Jia.” Tang Dynasty Du Huan’s “Jing Xing Ji” called Islam the “big food law”, and Song Dynasty Zhao Rushi’s (Zhu Fan Zhi” called “big food education”. At this time Islam was still only in China. It is confined to the Arab and Persian merchants who come to live in China, and the majority of Han people are quite unfamiliar with it. Therefore, some Chinese documents often describe religious activities such as Muslim chanting and worship, which are not exactly understood as “Bastian”, “Calling Buddha”, etc…
The Muslims who came to China during the Tang and Song Dynasties maintained their religious beliefs and lifestyle, intermarried with the locals, lived and worked in peace, multiplying children and grandchildren, and evolved from overseas Chinese to “local natives” and became the ancestors of Chinese Muslims. Foreign Muslims engage in legitimate business activities and do not preach to foreigners, avoiding conflicts with traditional Chinese ideas. The Song Dynasty followed this policy, and further relied on the income of Haibo, which provided many convenient conditions for the settlement and commercial activities of “fans”, and made Islam deeply rooted in Chinese soil. Although there were not many Muslims who came to China during the Tang and Song Dynasties, most of them traveled between coastal trade ports and major cities such as Chang’an, Kaifeng, and Beijing to engage in trade activities. They and their descendants get along with the Chinese people in a friendly manner, learn traditional Chinese culture, some even take examinations as officials, and some use their wealth to develop commerce and trade and provide a large amount of fiscal revenue for the court. They are friendly messengers of the exchange between Arab Islamic culture and Chinese culture. Chinese papermaking, alchemy, printing, gunpowder, etc. have been introduced to Arabia successively from this period, and then introduced to the West by Arabs.

Yuan Dynasty to Early Ming Dynasty

This is an important period for the widespread and comprehensive development of Islam in mainland China. In the late Southern Song Dynasty, after the rise of the Mongolian Khanate, Genghis Khan and his successors launched three large-scale western expeditions between 1219 and 1260. In the past half-century, the Mongols successively conquered various countries and nations that believed in Islam in Central Asia and West Asia and destroyed the Abbasid dynasty of the Arab Empire in 1258. During the Mongols’ Western Expeditions, groups of people of all ethnic groups in Central Asia, Persians, and Arabs were conscripted to China as prisoners of war to participate in the Mongolian conquest and unification of China. Among them were issued sergeants, craftsmen, captured women, and children, as well as some religious scholars, the upper echelons of society and their subordinates, and the total number was about hundreds of thousands. The issued sergeants were incorporated into the ” Red Army of Exploring Horses “. They were enlisted in wartimes, gathered and raised in peacetime, and were stationed in various places, mostly in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai in the northwest, while some moved to the southwest, Jiangnan, and Central Plains. The Mongols’ western expeditions and their occupation of Central Asia, West Asia, and other places opened up the traffic between China and the West. “There is no border here,” and there is an endless stream of businessmen, preachers, travelers, and academics who come to China voluntarily. The Tang and Song Dynasty Chinese residents with big food, descendants of Persians are Muslim, it is called “back and forth” or ” wood pretty fast ” (Muslim, namely Persian Muslim), has become an important ingredient in the Yuan Dynasty Semu. The “History of Mugul” contains: “Menggul’s westward expedition, not time for deep debate, lifts the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, and the east and west of the green mountains. Those who worship Mahmo (i.e. Muhammad ) believers do not regard Persia, Tochar, Kangju, and Wusun. , Dashi and Turks are all called Huihe, but they can’t speak rightly, and the sound is “Huihui”. The Huihui people from the East after they settled in the Yuan Dynasty, “lived in the middle of the earth, all with the Central Plains as their home”, “no longer look back. The homeland is also”. They still maintain the Islamic faith and culture. They “live in the middle of the earth, eat the middle of the earth, and the only custom is the mud”, “although it is suitable for a particular area, and passed on to the descendants”, their religious beliefs “do not dare to change for many generations.” These people were all over the country. Early Yuan, Marco Polo mentioned many times in his travel notes that there are Muslims in all provinces of China. He said that Yachi (now Kunming) “There are several kinds of people, including Muslims, idolaters, and some Nestorian Christians.” Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan tourist in the future of China, wrote in his travel notes. “Every city in China has an area dedicated to Muslims, and there are large mosques in the area for gathering rituals .” He also described the situation of Xitong (now Quanzhou) and Hangzhou Muslims. At the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, Zhou Mi said in ” Guixin Miscellaneous Knowledge “: “This time I will call the Central Plains as my home, especially Jiangnan.”
Where Muslims live, there are temples of worship. The scale and number of worship temples in the Yuan Dynasty far exceeded those of the previous generations. According to the inscription of “Reconstruction of the Temple of Worship” in Dingzhou (now Dingzhou City, Hebei Province ) in the eighth year of Yuanzhizheng (1348): “The people of Huihui are all over the world”, “It is close to the capital, but there are many roads outside. To worship the gods.” At this time, most places (now Beijing), Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Yangzhou, Wenzhou, Qingyuan (now Ningbo), Shanghai, Shangdu, Chang’an, and other places were the places where Muslim merchants gathered, worship temples, and Other Islamic buildings are more concentrated. For example, in Quanzhou, six or seven worship temples were built in the Yuan Dynasty. In Helin, there are also two worship temples. Some returning Muslim officials have also built many temples in their own administrative areas. For example, Saidianchi·Gusiding built as many as 12 temples in Kunming. There are still Nancheng Temple on Zhengyi Road and Yongning Temple on Jinbi Road. . In the edicts, edicts, and other documents of the Yuan Dynasty, the temple of worship was called Masjid (Masjid) or Huihui Temple, commonly known as the Huihui Temple, and the Zhangjiao was called “Danisnmara” (Scholar) or Huihui Zhangjiao. , Huihui master; call the Islamic law the “Huihui method”, “the way of returning home”, etc. Since the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Muslims have spread throughout the country, and their religious beliefs and customs have been widely noticed. Therefore, Islam is called “Muslim” or “Muslim” and has been carried forward to modern times.
From the Yuan dynasty to the early Ming dynasty, a considerable number of Han, Mongolian, Uyghur, and other ethnic groups converted to Islam due to political, economic, and intermarriage, and became Muslims. After the Hui people entered China in the Yuan Dynasty, they settled in various places and mixed with the Han people, intermarried with women of the Han people, and all women married to the Hui people converted to Islam. Yuan Dynasty; the Mongols from the ancestors and nobles to their military and civilians gradually merged into the Hui people because they accepted Islam. Ananda, the grandson of Kublai Khan, the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, converted to Islam since childhood, and the majority of his officers and soldiers were Muslims So that its jurisdiction (including Shaan, Gansu, Ning, Qing, and other places) Islam has been widely spread and developed. According to the literature of the Ming Dynasty, there were three types of people living together in the Hami area at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty: “One is Huihui, the other is fearful, and the other is Hara Hui”. Hara Hui was originally a Mongol. During the Ming Zhengde period (1506 ~ 1521), they moved to Suzhou (now Jiuquan, Gansu) twice. During the Wanli period (1573 ~ 1620), due to the influence of the Hui nationality, they had no longer eat pork. , And Huihui is the same.”
From the Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, it was also the period when Hui Hui people of various origins formed a nation. After they came to China, they cultivated and raised farms, or worked and did business. On a certain economic basis, Islam played an important role in the social development of the Hui people and the formation of a national community :
(1)Because the Hui people believe in Islam, the common belief strengthens the cohesion, which promotes the formation of a common national psychological state.
(2)The Jiaofang organization formed groups or associations of Huihui Muslims who were in great dispersion. Jiefang is a Muslim community with a worship temple as the center. According to documentary records, in the Yuan Dynasty, the large-scale worship temples had not only the headteachers, but also various faculty members in charge of teaching methods, paging services, and charge of temple affairs. In the Ming Dynasty, the management organization of the worship temple under the Jiaofang system became more perfect. There are imams (imams) and “three palms” in the temple. The emergence and development of the Jiaofang have consolidated religious beliefs organizationally and played a role in uniting the Muslims in the community.
(3)Islam has largely influenced the customs and habits of the Hui people, including marriage, family, funerals, food, festivals, etiquette, and moral behavior, etc., and evolved from the relevant provisions of the Koran. Islam has had a profound impact on the politics, economy, culture, and education of the Hui people, as well as the way of thinking, rational structure, and values.
Also, the ancestors of the Dongxiang, Baoan, and Cellars who lived in Gansu and Qinghai provinces today were Muslims of various ethnic groups who moved in from Central Asia during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. They entered this area to live together with Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, and other ethnic groups, and their ability to develop independently within the encirclement of Han-Tibetan or Mongolian-Tibetan culture is precisely the important role played by the Islamic faith and culture.
The social status of the Huihui in the Yuan Dynasty is second only to the Mongols. Muslims occupy an important position and influence in military, political, economic, and cultural fields, and some of them are among the rulers. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty held a tolerant attitude towards Islam, and established a “return to study” for religious and cultural education, and established a “return to Islam” to manage Islamic affairs. Mosques are generally built wherever Muslims go, and temples built by previous generations have also been repaired and rebuilt. Islam has become “Puritanism” and “true religion” that go hand in hand with Buddhism and Taoism. At this time, Arab science and culture were introduced into China through Muslims who came to China. The Yuan government set up institutions such as Huisi Tianjian and Huihui Medicine Institute. Muslim scholars have contributed to the development of Chinese science and culture and cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries in astronomy, calendar, medicine, architecture, military industry, literature, and art. Ming eunuch and Muslim navigator Zheng He were ordered to lead a fleet of seven “sailings”. During the last voyage to the West in 1430, the accompanying Muslims were sent to Mecca for the Hajj, drawing a “Kaaba Map” and strengthening the friendship between the Chinese and Arab people.

Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty

At the turn of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, with the social development of the Hui people, the combination of Islamic culture and traditional Chinese culture formed the characteristics of Chinese Islam. During this period, to adapt to the social and economic development of the Hui nationality and to solve the problem of the lack of religious talents, during the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty (1522~1566), Hu Dengzhou, a famous scripture teacher in Shaanxi, created the precedent for Jingtang education, first in Shaanxi, then in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, and Shandong. In Yunnan and other places, there has been a sutra education system in which mosque imams recruit students to teach scriptures to cultivate religious talents and popularize religious knowledge. In the course of its development and evolution, local scripture education has formed its own centers and characteristics. In the northwest region, Shaanxi scholars represented by Feng Yangwu and Zhang Shaoshan promoted religious education in monasteries, mostly based on Arabic textbooks, with the characteristics of studying for the subject. Shandong and other provinces in the interior represented by Chang Zhimei, both Arabic and Persian are taught concurrently, and he mainly studies law. Ma Fuchu, the founder of the Yunnan School, has the characteristics of Shaanxi and Shandong. Following the development of sutra education, some famous imams, sutra teachers, and scholars have successively carried out the activities of translating Islamic sutras into Chinese to change the situation of “the doctrine is not clear and the teachings are not taught”. At this time, with Nanjing and Yunnan in the south of the Yangtze River as the center, the Chinese translation and interpretation of Islamic teachings were used to promote Islamic academic culture, so that inside and outside the religion could understand Islam. The previous stage of the translation activity was represented by Wang Daiyu, Liu Zhi, Zhang Zhong, Ma Zhu, and Wu Zuni. The content of the translation was mostly doctrine, teaching method, classic system, history, philosophy, etc. The latter stage is represented by Ma Fuchu, Ma Lianyuan, etc. In addition to the teachings and teaching methods, the content involves Arabic grammar, rhetoric, geography, astronomy, calendar, etc., and the Chinese translation of the “Quran” began. Some scholars also write in Arabic, or both Chinese and Arabic. Most of these Muslim scholars are well versed in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and are known as the “Hui Confucianism” of “the combination of Chinese and Arabic”, “learning through the four religions”, and “the study of Confucianism”. Their translation of “Xi Ben Zun Sutra” refers to many Sufi classics, and most of them use “the combination of Islamic teachings and traditional Chinese culture”.The way of interpreting scriptures with Confucianism has formed the religious and philosophical system of Chinese Islam.
During this period, in Gansu, Ningxia, and Qinghai where Muslims such as Hui, Salar, Dongxiang, Baoan, and other Muslims lived, the introduction of Islamic Sufism led to the formation of of of Sufi “men and eunuch” factions. As early as the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, the Sufi monks of Islam had missionary activities in the southeast coast of China and some important places in the interior, but they did not form any sects. Since the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, after the opening of the maritime ban, the traffic between China and the West has been smooth. Some Sufi missionaries from West Asia and Central Asia have come to Northwest China to spread Sufism teachings. There are also Chinese Muslims who have accepted the Soviet Union for hajj to Mecca and study tours to Arab countries. He returned to his country to preach after Philippine thought. Sufism’s preaching about reality and illusion, purifying the soul for the unity of man and lord, and advocating perseverance, asceticism, abstinence, and practice have great appeal to impoverished Muslims.
With the continuous improvement Menhuan founder of the reputation of the increasing number of believers, Menhuan also came into being, has the size to form Menhuan 33, according to their religious claims, mainly Hom Di Line, Zhehelinye, Hu Feiye, and Kubrinye are often called ” Four Gate Eunuchs “. The characteristics of the eunuch are, first of all, respecting the founder of the eunuch, called “old man” and “sheik”, and believers regard them as the leader of the “Way of Allah”. When he was alive, he was revered by the faithful. After his death, he would build a “Gongbei” tomb in his cemetery. The believers went to pay respects and chant scriptures every year on his death day. Secondly, the eunuchs administer many church workshops. To manage the masses of religious people, the hierarch appointed ” Reis ” as an agent to serve as the headmaster of the central mosques of various religious workshops, thus forming an expanded teaching workshop system with layers of affiliation. Third, some eunuch masters practice the hereditary system, “taking the descendants of the founders as their heads for all generations.” A small number of eunuchs advocated the system of passing on meritocracy, but the successors of the leader also came from their relatives.


Around the time of the Five Dynasties and the Northern Song Dynasty, Islam began to spread to Xinjiang from Central Asia. It is different from the mainland in the mode of transmission. According to historical records, in the early 10th century, the Uighurs when a westward Uighurs (now the Uighur ancestors) in the Khan clan Ponte led the ground and living in Central Asia seven Chu River to River Valley (now Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in some areas ) of Geluolu ancient magma, Oghuz, such as at March Turkic peoples, established in the Western Karakhanid (about 940 to 1211). The Khanate practiced the “double sweat system” common to nomads. The khan was called Arslan (“Lion” in Turkic language) Khan, the resident Balasagon (tokamak in Kyrgyzstan), and the deputy Khan called Bugle (ie male camel) Khan, the station early in Talas (now Kazakhstan Dzhambul ), later moved to Kashgar Kashgar (now Xinjiang Kashi ). According to the 14th-century Uyghur historian Gemal Karsi’s Supplement to the Surah Dictionary, in the first half of the 10th century, the first Great Khan of the dynasty, the grandson of Vigach Kadir Khan, was based in Kashgar. Datuk Bugle Khan, sheltered in Atushi, north of KashgarUnder under the influence of Abu Nasr Samani, a member of the Central Asian Saman Dynasty (874~996), he first accepted the Islamic faith. After fighting with his uncle Augustus Lechak and winning, the Khanate The East Branch took the lead to convert to Islam, the precedent of the Islamization of the Karahan Dynasty. In 955, after Musa Abdul Kerim became Khan, he designated Islam as the state religion and promoted Islam to the area of ​​the Great Khan in the struggle for the throne.
The 11th-century Arab historian Ibn Miskewe and the 12th-century historian Ibn al-Asir mentioned in “The Complete History ” that in 960, 200,000 Turkic nomads converted to Islam. In the early 11th century, Musa Hassan Bugera Khan’s son and grandson Yusuf Qadeer Khan, are at the center of Kashgar, continues to expand its influence to the northeast and southeast of Xinjiang, the British occupied Jisha, Boyer After Qiang and other places, Yusuf launched a war against the Buddhist region of Khotan (now Hotan). After 20 years of war, the Khotan Li dynasty was destroyed, and the territory was expanded to the east of the city of Yuecheng (in Ruoqiang County, Xinjiang ), which made Khotan’s ancient Buddhist powerhouse gradually Islamic. In the middle of the 12th century, the Karahan dynasty, which straddled Congling from east to west, was occupied by Khitans from the east, including present-day Xinjiang. At this time, people with different religious beliefs were still under the unified jurisdiction of the Xiao (1132~1218) regime. West falcon upper Liao people believe in Buddhism, but other religions are not strictly excluded (usurpation of West Liao regime Naiman Kuchlug taken except hostility), and therefore Islam during this period are still being developed. According to ” Journey to the West by a True Man in Changchun “, before the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty, Islam and Buddhism were bounded by Changpala (now Jimsar ) in Xinjiang, with Buddhist forces in the east, Kashgar as the center in the west, and Kashgar as the center in the north. The areas along the northern edge of the Tarim Basin to Aksu and Kuqa, and the south road from Shache, Yecheng, Hotan to Qiemo are all areas of Islamic influence. Fixing”The History of World Conquerors ” stated that in the 13th century, when the last monarchs of the Western Liao Dynasty forced Muslims to abandon their belief in Islam, the imam of Hotan argued with him on the grounds, showing that Islam has a solid foundation in this area. Liao Dynasty, the Ili River Valley Almaliq areas there was the little kingdom of Islam, this is the first time Islam spread to the nomadic area north of the Tianshan Mountains.
The “History of the Conquerors of the World” also reported that there were still people in the Alimali area who believed in Islam Sufis. In the late Yuan Dynasty, Islam continued to develop in the eastern Chagatai Khanate of Mongolia, which occupied Xinjiang and the Hezhong region of Central Asia. Islam spread to the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains. According to records in the 16th century Mirza Muhammad Haidar’s “History of La Shide” and other books, Tu Hei Lu Timur (reigned from 1347 to 1363) was before and after the throne of Khan, when Sheikh Dhamaluddin and his son Ah Under the persuasion and influence of Oshaduddin, the initiation ceremony was presided over by the great Mullah Matt, who became the first Mongolian Queen Chagatai to believe in Islam in Xinjiang. Later, he sent imams to various places in Yijiao. His subordinates, from the princes, nobles to farmers and herdsmen, about 160,000 Mongolians “cut off their long hair and converted to Islam.” Ming Hongwu sixteen years (1383), black children, and Zhuo Khan said after personally to the eastern states and rancid fire Turpan war and other Buddhist regions, to take tough measures “to force the local population to convert.” Since then, these two places have been called “Dar Islam” (i.e. Islamicized areas). Before and after the throne of Hei’er and Zhuozhihan, Xinjiang was split into many separatist regimes, and the ruler is still the descendant of the Chagatai Mongolian nobles. To fight for power, Mahama Khan of Bali continued to promote Islam among the Mongols after Hei’s son and Zhuo. During his rule, all Chagatai Mongols in Xinjiang converted to Islam.
From the 15th to the 16th century, Islam developed rapidly in Xinjiang. Not only did the number of believers increase and the region expanded, but it also became the main ideology of all ethnic groups. Islam occupies an advantage in the Turpan and Hami areas of Xinjiang and has become the unified religion of Uyghurs in different regions, which has a profound impact on its language, customs, moral standards, and psychological quality. After the Chagatai Mongolians believed in Islam, they intermarried with Uyghurs and gradually settled down, and gradually merged with the local Uyghurs. In the Kazakh nomadic society of the Ili River Valley in northern Xinjiang and the grasslands of Central Asia, Islam has gradually occupied a dominant position. An Ottoman Turk, Sai Fei, wrote in 1582 that the Kazakhs are followers of the Hanafi School of Law of Islam. In the “Seven Codes” enacted during the Kazakh Khanate Toukhan period (1680-1718), the Islamic Sharia law became the basis of legislation, stipulating that “whoever insults Allah shall be sentenced to death by seven persons who have proved true.” Christians must confiscate all their property” and so on. The spread and development of Islam in Xinjiang has the following characteristics:
(1)All dynasties have implemented the unified administration and religion system and implemented Islamic law. The upper-class religious figures such as Sheikh, Mullah, and Kadi enjoy high social status. The monarchs of the Karahan Dynasty and Queen Chagatai respect them as teachers and religious advisers. With the support of the rulers, religious leaders have great powers. For example, in the late 14th century, Sheikh Dhamaruddin and his sons Arsha and Dudin, who persuaded Baldheru Timur to become a religion, preached in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains. Later, the family was granted the hereditary privileges of the Islamic “Kazi” (that is, the religious judge) in Kuqa, Aksu, and Ushi, until the time of Bieshi Bali and Yili Bari regimes. The religious upper class rebuilt the tombs of martyrs who had spread Islam since the Karakhan Dynasty. They called them “Maza” and were regarded as “Holy Land” by believers. The queens of Chagatai in all dynasties gave a large amount of land and other teaching properties as the religious public property of “Maza”. At the same time, the mosque was also given a large number of “Wakf” estates.
(2)Since the beginning of the 17th century, the famous Sufis of Central Asia, Hezhuo Mehdum, the heir of Azam, has come to Xinjiang to preach. They rely on He Zhuo’s special status to rule the Yarkand Khanate in southern Xinjiang. With the support of the People’s Republic of China, the disciples were widely collected and wealth amassed, forming a powerful religious and political force. To compete for religious leadership, the Hezhuo family was divided into two different religious sects from the beginning, namely the Black Mountain Sect of the Ishag family and the Baishan Sect of the Ichan Karang family. The two factions vie for the sphere of influence and oppose each other. The Baishan faction and Zhuo who lost in the struggle used the military conquest of the Junggar nobles in northern Xinjiang to eradicate dissidents, overthrew the rule of the Yarkand Khanate, and established the “Holy Islamic State” attached to the Junggar Khanate in southern Xinjiang. It was not until the Qing Dynasty put down the rebellion of the Junggar nobles in the middle of the 18th century and regained Xinjiang that the power of the Hezhuo family fell apart.
(3)At the same time as the development of the Hezhuo forces, the Sufi mysticism of Islam has been further spread and developed. Combining it with the original religious influence and traditional culture of Xinjiang Turkic language ethnic groups, many Sufi mysticism Yichan schools have been produced. Which have a greater impact on Nagesh classes Rachidia, tigers non yeah, Hom Di Line, Czech Republic Breuil, Guanches Tiye, Suha La Wadi Lord Wood Slat Jesus, and other factions. The emergence and development of these Yichan sects promoted the development of the worship of saints, the holy tomb (namely Mazha pilgrimage), and the large-scale Mazha architecture, forming a major feature of the Islamic etiquette system in Xinjiang.

The middle and late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China

(1) The “Ganzhou Uprising” led by Mi Layin and Ding Guodong in the fifth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1648) opposed the “Head Shaving Order” under the regent of the Qing Dynasty, Dorgon, and the 46th year (1781) and 49th year (1784) of the Qianlong period. 43. The continuation and development of Tian Wu’s anti-Qing uprising. From 1856 to 1874, Yunnan Hui Muslims led by Du Wenxiu proposed the “Xinghan”, “Choosing Man” and “Chuan” uprisings. The Shaanxi-Gansu Revolution from 1862 to 1877 and the armed struggle between Urumqi, Ili, and Hami in Urumqi, Ili, and Hami between 1864 and 1866 between Kuqa and Uyghur Muslims united with the Muslims and took the longest time. Most of these uprisings used Islam as the ideological banner and link of struggle. Jiefang was the most basic organizational form of the insurgents. Some were led by Axun or the head of the eunuch, and the worship time was the stronghold of the uprising team. These uprisings and struggles dealt a heavy blow to the national oppression of the Qing Dynasty, and they were part of the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggles of the people of all ethnic groups in modern China. However, the uprisings were brutally suppressed by the Qing rulers, resulting in a sharp decline in the population. Large numbers of Muslims were sent to the frontiers or migrated to remote areas in poor mountains and remote areas. Their residences became more and more scattered, and their living and social environments were more difficult. Chinese Muslims suffered difficulty.
(2) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, under the influence of the modern Chinese national bourgeoisie’s “education to save the country” and “science and technology to save the country” trend, a group of Muslim scholars and scribes such as Wang Kuan and Abdul Kadir have advocated reforming religion Education, the implementation of the “two exchanges of scriptures and books”, and the establishment of new schools have promoted the transformation of Chinese Muslim monastery education into modern education. In the early days of the new-style school, there was the Muslim two-level primary school of the Niujie Mosque in Beijing and the Palindrome Normal School (1908), Beiping Chengda Normal School (1925), Shanghai Islamic Normal School (1927), Sichuan Wanxian Islamic Normal School (1928), Yunnan Mingde Middle School (1929) and Hangzhou Muxing Middle School, etc.
Since the 1930s, in places where Hui Muslims are more distributed throughout the country, there have been 400 to 500 general primary schools of various types, and there are also 20 to 30 general middle schools and normal colleges. At the same time, in the old-style sutra education, the curriculum is gradually changing, and courses such as Chinese and general knowledge are generally added. In the Xinjiang region, sutra education has evolved from a small and scattered private school to a specialized religious school (Madelesai). In terms of teaching form, teaching content, and management methods, it has the ethnic characteristics of the region. At the same time, students were sent to study in Islamic countries such as Al-Azhar University in Egypt and Turkey. To develop Islamic education and culture, religious education and cultural organizations of Chinese Muslims have been established one after another. The earliest late Qing Zhenjiang Tong Cong initiated the establishment of the “East Asian Federation of Islamic education” and the organization of Muslim students studying in Japan, ” left East Muslim Educational Association .”
In 1912, Wang Kuan and Ma Linyi initiated the ” China Islamic Progress Association ” in Beijing. Its branches spread across many provinces and counties across the country. Since then, various Islamic social organizations and academic and cultural institutions have increased day by day, and academic activities have been extensively carried out. To adapt to the development of modern society and revitalize the nation and Islamic culture, many Muslim intellectuals have also Many publications have been created in various places, and the Chinese and Uyghur translations of the “Quran” and other classics have been published successively, selected translations and full translations, thus forming a new upsurge in the academic and cultural research of China’s Islamic culture since the late Ming and early Qing. A group of scholars and scriptures with exquisite knowledge in the study of the Quran, Hadith, Jurisprudence, and Islamic philosophy have emerged. Among them are Wang Kuan, Wang Jingzhai, Da Pushing, Ha Decheng, Ma Songting, Yang Zhongming, Hu Songshan, Yangmengyuan, Joshua, Pangshi Qian, Ma Jian, Shemusiding, Thai sword stand · Edward said cloth and other more well-known, their spread and development of Chinese modern Islamic culture have made important contributions.

Chinese Religion – Taoism

Among the five major religions in my country, Taoism is the only religion that originated in China and was founded by the Chinese, so it is also called a local religion. Taoism had a profound impact on the politics, economy, and culture of our country in ancient times, and it is one of the three spiritual pillars of the ruling class. After the founding of New China, through the democratic reform of the religious system, Chinese Taoism gained a new life and gradually embarked on the path of adapting to the socialist society. Since the reform and opening up, under the guidance of the party and the government’s religious policies in the new era, Taoism in China has shown an unprecedented new atmosphere and has made positive contributions to promoting economic development, social harmony, the reunification of the motherland and world peace.


Taoist religion-1


The birth and development of Taoism

The Taoist school and the Taoist religion

Most Chinese scholars in modern times believe that Taoism and Taoism are two concepts that are both related and distinct. Traditionally, Taoism is sometimes called Taoism and Huang Lao. Strictly speaking, the two are not the same thing. The term “Taoism” was first found in “On the Essentials of Six Schools” by Sima Tan in the Western Han Dynasty. It refers to the school of thought represented by Lao Zhuang thought among the hundreds of schools of pre-Qin philosophers or refers to the school of Huang Lao that prevailed during the Warring States, Qin, and Han Dynasties.
They all take “Tao” as the highest category in ideology and theory, advocate respecting Tao and virtue, imitating nature, governing the country and self-cultivation by the law of purity and inaction, dealing with belief in ghosts and gods, and dealing with the relationship between man and nature, so they are called Taoism. As for “Taoism”, it is a religious entity. As the name suggests, “Taoism” means the enlightenment or preaching of “Tao”, or a religion that believes in “Tao” and “becomes immortal and attains Tao” through the cultivation of spiritual form. As a religious entity, Taoism not only has its unique classic doctrines, fairy beliefs, and ritual activities, but also its religious inheritance, religious group organization, discipline system, and religious activities venues. Such a religious society is obviously different from the early Taoist school, but Taoism is the upper reaches of “Taoism”, and the beliefs of Taoism and Taoism are “Tao”, and we must not divide it arbitrarily.
Taoist religion-2

The birth, formation, and development of Taoism

From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties, Taoism was formed and established. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Huang Lao Dao formed an entity, and folk primitive religious groups such as Taiping Dao and Tianshi Dao were established one after another. After hundreds of years of transformation and development in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the classic Taoist doctrines, the practice of alchemy, and the rites of discipline gradually became complete. The new Taoist sects multiplied and were recognized by the rulers and evolved into a mature orthodox religion.
From the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the Northern Song Dynasty, due to the respect of the ruling class, Taoism was extremely prosperous and had a great social influence. Taoism’s philosophy, health maintenance, spells, and ritual regulations were also more perfect. After the late Tang and Northern Song dynasties, there were some new changes in Taoism, which were mainly manifested in the emergence of the idea of ​​Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and the rise of Jindan Taoism, which mainly practiced inner alchemy. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, Taoism changed. In northern China, new Taoisms such as Quanzhen Tao, Taiyi, and Zhendao appeared. In the south, new Taoisms such as Jindan Sect, Nanzong, Tianxin, Shenxiao, Qingwei, and Jingming appeared, and early Tianshi Taoism and Shangqing. The school and the Lingbao school also have innovations in doctrine and Taoism. Propagating the integration of the three religions and focusing on the cultivation of inner alchemy were the main characteristics of Taoism in this period.
During the Ming and Qing dynasties, as China’s feudal society entered its late stage, the development of Taoism fell into stagnation and ossification. In modern China, Taoism inherited the Ming and Qing Yuxu, except for a few periods, which have been at a low point.
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The main doctrines of Taoism

Taoism inherited and developed Taoism thought in the pre-Qin period, taking “Tao” as the highest belief, and evolving from it the highest classics, the highest Taoism, and the highest gods, and building a huge system of classic Taoism gods. Taoism believes that Tao can be cultivated, and the purpose of cultivation is to attain Tao and become immortal. The ultimate goal is to be in harmony with Tao and to be in harmony with Tao.
Taoism respects Laozi as the ancestor of Taoism and regards Laozi’s “Tao De Jing” as the main classic.

1. Respect Tao and virtue, “Tao” is the core of Taoist belief

Taoism regards Tao as its highest belief, regards Tao Te Ching as a classic, and respects Tao and its virtues. It is believed that Tao is the source of the creation of heaven and earth and that the universe, yin and yang, and all things are all transformed from Tao. Virtue means “get”, and Tao is a virtue when it is embodied in people and everything. Human beings and all things are born by Taoism and moral education, so Taoism and virtue should be respected.

2. Immortality is the goal of Taoism

Taoism believes that the Tao can be cultivated, and the Tao can become an immortal. Taoism regards life as extremely important. Taoism is to live forever. It advocates practice to extend the length of life and improve the quality of life, to achieve eternity of life. Taoism advocates treating the secular life with a pure and innocent attitude, and practicing in the spirit of “I am not in heaven.” Through various Taoist practices, one can become one with the Tao and become an immortal god.

Chinese Religion – Chinese Buddhism

Around the Gregorian calendar era, Indian Buddhism began to be introduced into China from India, and the Baima Temple in Luoyang has been respected by Buddhist disciples as the “source of Buddhism”, that is, the birthplace of Chinese Buddhism. After a long period of spread and development, it has formed a characteristic of Chinese nationality. Chinese Buddhism. As time passed, route, regional and ethnic cultures, different historical backgrounds of society, Chinese Buddhism formed three lines, namely, Chinese Buddhism ( Chinese Department), Tibetan Buddhism ( Tibetan Department), and the Yunnan region Theravada Buddhism ( Pali Department).


Buddhist murals


Historical Origins


The founder, Shakyamuni, was born in Lumbini in present-day Nepal and was a prince of the Sakyamuni tribe. Regarding the year of his birth and death, there are still different opinions in Southern and Northern Buddhism. It is generally believed that he was born between the 6th and the 5th century BC. When he was a teenager, he felt that the world was fickle, thinking deeply about how to free himself from suffering in life. At the age of 29, he became a monk. After attaining the Tao and becoming a Buddha ( Buddha, a paraphrase of enlightenment), he promoted his enlightened truth to the public in the central area of the Ganges River in India, and gained more and more believers, thus organizing religious groups and forming Buddhism. At the age of 80 in Kushinagar Nirvana.


After Buddhism was founded, it has evolved several times in India. The Buddhism preached by the Buddha and his direct disciples are called fundamental Buddhism. After the Buddha’s Nirvana, his disciples followed the basic doctrines such as the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path and maintained the conventions of his lifetime in the life of the sect. Since the Buddha had different opinions about different objects on different occasions when he was alive, his disciples had different understandings of this. About 100 years after the Buddha’s extinction, Buddhism split into two major schools, the Theravada and the Masses, called the two fundamental schools. After more than 100 years, the division continued, and it was divided into eighteen or twenty parts, which is called the branch faction. There are different opinions on the order, age, name, and region of the division of divisions. At that time, the spread of Buddhism was from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the Krishna River (Krishna River) in the south. It is generally believed that the largest part directly divided by Theravada is to say that everything is part. The Theravada (represented by the Saying of All Ministries) and the Popular Ministries are quite different in doctrine.
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The main difference between the two parts is:

①The knowledge of law (things, existence). The Ministry of Public People believes that “the past and the future are not real entities” and “the existing entities are used, but they can be used in the name.” That is to say, all realities arise and die according to cause and conditions. The past has passed away, there is no entity, and the future does not arise. Without substance, the body and function of the law are only present in the instant; it is said that all the ministries claim that the body of law is eternal, and the past, present, and future three lives are also real. “Reality” is called my empty law.
②Knowledge of Buddha. The Public Ministry believes that the Buddha Shakyamuni born and died in the world is an incarnation rather than a real body. The real body of the Buddha is a result of accumulated long-term practice. He has an infinite lifespan and power. All words spoken are random statements. One tone says all dharma; that all the ministries do not recognize Shakyamuni as an incarnation, and that the Buddha’s words are not all sutras, nor do they all say all dharma.
③The knowledge of Shengwen and Bodhisattva. The mass ministry emphasizes the bodhisattva’s compassion and willingness to spread all living beings, and it is the bodhisattva to hear it softly. It says that although all ministries recognize that there is a difference between sound and hearing, karmic enlightenment, the root nature of the bodhisattva’s ability to practice, and the path they practice, they think that the Buddha is derived from the sound and karmic enlightenment. There is no difference in relief.
Before and after the Gregorian calendar, the worship of stupas was popular among Buddhists, which formed the first group of Mahayana-Bodhisattvas. Some of them practiced and preached the Mahayana thoughts and practices based on the ” Madhya Prajna Sutra “, ” Vimala Sutra “, ” Miao Dharma Lotus Sutra ” and other sutras, and formed Madhyamaka (empty school ) and Yogic school ( There are two major systems, and early Buddhism is relegated to Hinayana.
About 500 years after the Buddha’s Nirvana, the Mahayana Madhyamaka Sect emerged. Nagarjuna, the founder of this school, interprets the ideas of ” emptiness “, “middle way” and ” two truths “, and his disciple Deva continues to promote Nagarjuna’s doctrine, enabling the further development of Mahayana Buddhism. There’ll be Bhāviveka and Buddha guard, said last month such as thinking concept from different angles elucidation, forming self-sustaining and should be sent to school. At the same time, Hinayana Buddhism said that everything has a ministry, a meridian ministry, etc. continues to develop.
About 900 years after the Buddha’s Nirvana, the yoga school emerged. The founder of this faction is no peace and family. Wuzhao originally means that all monks who have a tribe, because they feel inadequate about the teachings of all tribes, expound the doctrine of Mahayana. His younger brother Shiqin originally said that all scholars had tribes, but since then they have never changed to Mahayana, and they are called “Master of Thousand Buds”. Wuzhe and Shiqin promoted the theory of knowledge-only of “all dharma- only knowledge ” and ” three ideals “. Since then, there are four main inheritances: Nanda, Anhui, Chenna, and Dharma protectors.
After the 7th century, Indian Esotericism became popular, and after the 8th century, it was close to Hinduism. Pala Empire in Nalanda then build another Vikramashila as a study and esoteric propaganda center; after the 9th century, Esoteric Buddhism flourished successively formed Vajrayana, all students take the wheel and multiply. Starting in the 11th century, the influence of Islam gradually entered various parts of East India. By the beginning of the 13th century, many important temples such as the Chao Jie Temple were destroyed, the monks scattered, and Buddhism disappeared in the South Asian subcontinent.
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Buddhism was originally only popular in the Ganges River Basin of Central India. During the Maurya Dynasty, King Ashoka regarded Buddhism as the state religion. He built pagodas and engraved edicts and instructions on cliffs and stone pillars. From then on, they spread throughout many parts of the South Asian subcontinent. At the same time, they sent missionaries to the surrounding countries to preach, from Burma in the east, Sri Lanka in the south, Syria, Egypt, and other places in the west, making Buddhism gradually become a world religion.
The spread of Buddhism to various parts of Asia can be roughly divided into two routes: the first spread to Sri Lanka from the south, and then from Sri Lanka to Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and other countries. It spread from the north to China through the Pamirs, and then from China to North Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and other countries.
Buddhism spread to Sri Lanka during the Maurya Dynasty in the 3rd century BC. King Ashoka sent his son Mahatā to Sri Lanka to teach Theravada Buddhism. In the 1st century BC, two schools of Buddhism appeared in Sri Lanka: the Great Temple School and the Wuweishan Temple School. In the first half of the 3rd century, Mahayana Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka, and the Nansi School was separated from the Wuweishan Temple School. At the beginning of the 5th century, Koyin sorted out and annotated the Southern Tripitaka in Pali, establishing a complete system of Theravada teachings. The Dasi School is considered the orthodox school of Southern Buddhism. The Buddhism of Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and other countries all inherit the legal system of the Great Temple School of Sri Lanka. After the 12th century, due to the invasion of foreigners and colonialists, Sri Lankan Buddhism was destroyed twice before being re-introduced from Myanmar and Thailand.
Theravada Buddhism was introduced to Myanmar from Sri Lanka in the 4th to 5th centuries. In the middle of the 11th century, King Anuluta of the Bagan dynasty established the earliest unified feudal dynasty in Myanmar. Later dynasties protected Buddhism and built a large number of majestic pagodas, such as the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon in the 18th century.
Buddhism was introduced to Thailand from Sri Lanka around the 12th century. In the 13th century, the Sukhothai dynasty of Thailand declared Buddhism as the state religion. In the 18th century, all the kings of the Bangkok dynasty believed in Buddhism. After the mid-nineteenth century, Rama IV reformed Buddhism, forming the old and the new schools, which continue to this day. From 1919 to 1927, all the commentaries on Tripitaka and foreign books in Tibet were published. Thailand is currently the country where Buddhism flourishes in Southeast Asia and is known as the “land of monks”.
During the 5th and 6th centuries, Buddhism was introduced to Funan (early Cambodia). 6th century helped South renamed Zhenla, multiplying the size of religion is Buddhism and Hinduism coexist, which is obviously reflected in the many palaces and religious buildings 9-12 century Angkor Thom. After the middle of the 14th century, Cambodia became a vassal state of Thailand, and Theravada Buddhism was introduced. Later, Laos introduced Theravada Buddhism from Cambodia.
From the 5th century, Buddhism began to spread to Indonesia, Sumatra, Java, Bali, and other places. According to the account of the Chinese monk Yijing, Hinayana Buddhism prevailed in the Indonesian islands in the middle of the 7th century. After that, the dynasties believed in Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism; Islam began to prevail in the 15th century.
Around the Gregorian calendar, Buddhism was introduced to China. It was regarded as a kind of magical magic in the Han Dynasty. In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, it spread throughout the country and many schools of thought emerged. The Sui and Tang dynasties entered their heyday and formed many sects with Chinese national characteristics. After the Song Dynasty, the various schools of Buddhism tended to merge, and the contradictions between Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism also gradually disappeared. From the 7th to 8th centuries, Buddhism was introduced into Tibet, China, India, and China’s Han areas. After the middle of the 10th century, it formed Tibetan-language Buddhism and then spread to Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Mongolia, and Russia’s Buryat Mongolians area.
Around the end of the second century, Buddhism was introduced into Vietnam from China. It was widely spread in the 4th to 5th centuries. From the 10th to the 14th century, Buddhism in Vietnam entered a period of prosperity. Thai and Burmese Buddhism also had an impact on Vietnamese Buddhism.
Buddhism was introduced from China to Goguryeo, Korea in the second half of the 4th century. After the Silla Dynasty unified the Korean peninsula in the 7th century, the Huayan School, Faxing School, Lvzong, and Zen introduced from China were very popular, and Zen especially prospered later. ” Korea Collection ” was published at the end of the 14th century. Although the Lee dynasty once adopted a policy of excluding Buddhism and advocating Confucianism in the 14th century, Korean Buddhism still developed. It began to decline in the middle of the 17th century and was revived in modern times.
Chinese Buddhism temple
In the 6th century, Buddhism was introduced to Japan from China via North Korea and has been the main religion in Japan ever since. At the beginning of the 7th century, Prince Shotoku asked all his subjects to “convert to the Three Jewels” in the ” 17-Article Constitution “. From the Sui and Tang Dynasties in China, Japan sent a large number of monks to China to study abroad, and the main sects of Chinese Buddhism were introduced to Japan one after another. After the 12th century, Japanese Buddhism formed many nationalized sects.
Buddhism spread to Syria, Egypt, and other countries during the time of King Ashoka in India, and later spread to some parts of Africa, but it had little influence.
Around the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Buddhism was introduced to Europe and North America successively. In 1906, Britain established the “British Buddhist Association”, and European Buddhists began to have their own organizations. In the future, Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and other countries will have Buddhist monks and research institutions. After Buddhism was introduced to the United States, it spread to Canada in the north and Brazil, Peru, Argentina, and other countries in the south.
Buddhism has spread to all continents of the world. But it is still concentrated in East Asia and Southeast Asia, where the number of Buddhist believers far exceeds that of other religions.

Buddhist rituals and festivals

Buddhist ceremony

It was originally a religious activity practiced in the Sakyamuni era, and after being introduced to China, it evolved into a sutra and Buddhist activity that satisfies the needs of believers. There are mainly various confession methods, water, and land law meetings, Obon meetings, flame mouths, etc. Buddhist rituals in Tibetan areas, the chanting of sutras, summoning conventions, and other obvious patriarchal rituals are basically the same as Buddhism in Han areas. Besides, there are rituals such as tantric teaching and empowerment and practice. The Buddhist rituals in the Dai area more or less bear traces of ghost worship and elves worship inherent in the residents.

Main holiday

The main festival of the Feast of Buddha (aka Buddha Day), into the Road Festival (also known as the Buddha into the Road Day, Laba Festival), Nirvana Festival, the Goddess of Mercy Festival (Chinese Lunar New Han areas to two, six, nine months of the 19th To commemorate the festival of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva), World Buddha Festival (also known as Vesak Festival, which is a festival in which the birth, enlightenment, and Nirvana of Sakyamuni are commemorated by Southern Buddhism), Ghost Exorcism Festival and God Jumping Festival (Buddhist festivals in Tibetan areas ), Songkran Festival (Buddhist festival of Dai ethnic group), Buddha Tooth Festival (Buddhist festival in Sri Lanka), etc. Some of these festivals have become folk customs.