Chinese celebrities – Mencius

Mencius, named Ke, Ziyu (about 372 bc-289 bc), Zou state (now Southeast of Zoucheng, Shandong Province). During the Warring States period, philosophers, thinkers, politicians, and educators were the representatives of the Confucian school after Confucius and before Xunzi.

Mencius advocated “benevolence and administration”, first proposed the idea of “people are noble, noble and light”, and Han Yu was listed as the character of Confucianism inheriting Confucius’ Taoism in the pre-Qin Dynasty, and was named “Yasheng” in Yuan Dynasty.

Mencius’s speech works are included in Mencius. Among them, “fish I want”, “get more help, lose less help”, “few people to the country”, “born in hardship, die of happiness” and “wealth can not be adultery” are included in the middle school Chinese textbooks.

“Mencius” is a classic work of Confucianism, written by Mencius and his disciples Wan Zhang and Gongsun Chou in the middle of the Warring States Period. It was first seen in Zhao Qi’s “Inscriptions of Mencius”: “This book is the work of Mencius, so it is always called “Mencius”.” “Mencius” was listed as the “Four Books” by Zhu Xi in the Southern Song Dynasty (the other three are “The Daxue”, “The Doctrine of the Mean” and “The Analects”).
There are eleven chapters of “Mencius” recorded in ” Hanshu · Art and Literature History”, and there are seven chapters in 14 volumes. The total number of words is more than 35,000 words, 260 chapters. According to legend, there are four other “Mencius Waishu”, which have been lost (the present “Mencius Waishu” is a forgery by Ming Yao Shitian ). The book records the political, educational, philosophical, ethical, and other ideological views and political activities of Mencius and his disciples. Ancient examinations mainly examine the “Four Books” and ” Five Classics “.

Mencius Works

Mencius is a collection of Mencius’ opinions, which is compiled by Mencius and his disciples. It records Mencius’ language, political views (benevolent government, the distinction between the king and the overlord, people-oriented, the difference between the king’s heart and the people’s respect for the king), and political actions. It is a classic work of Confucianism. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhu Xi combined Mencius with the Analects, the great learning, and the doctrine of the mean and called them “four books”. Since the song, yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties, it has been regarded as a family book. Mencius is the heaviest book in the four books, with more than 35000 words. Until the end of the Qing Dynasty, the “four books” has been the only content of the examination of the imperial examination.

Mencius has seven chapters and fourteen volumes, which have been handed down to the world: the first and second volumes of King Huiliang; the first and second volumes of Gongsun Chou; the first and second volumes of Tengwengong; the first and second volumes of Lilou; the first and second volumes of zhang; the first and second volumes of Gaozi; the first and second volumes of Jinxin.

However, after studying Mencius, Mencius’ posthumous titles, such as king Hui of Liang, King Xiang of Liang, King Xuan of Qi, Duke mu of Zou, Duke Wen of Teng, and Duke Ping of Lu, are not Mencius’ own works; and Mencius’ younger brother Lezhengzi, Duke Duzi and Wuluzi are all called “Zi”, which is not Mencius’ works. It was probably compiled by Mencius’ disciples, and the book was completed around the middle of the Warring States period.

Many passages in Mencius have been selected into Chinese textbooks, such as “more help from the right way, less help from the wrong way”, “fish is what I want”, “Wang Gu talks about him”, “born in hardship, die in happiness”, “wealth can’t be lewd” and so on.

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