Chinese celebrities – Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang, Yingzheng (259 BC-210 BC), Ying surname, Zhao clan, Mingzheng (one name is “zheng”), also known as Zhao Zheng, Zulong, There is also Lu Zhengyi said. The son of King Qin Zhuangxiang and Zhao Ji. An outstanding politician, strategist, and reformer in ancient China, a politician who completed the unification of China for the first time, and was also the first monarch to be called emperor in China.
 Ying Zheng was born in Handan, the capital of Zhao State, and then returned to Qin State. In 247 BC, he took the throne at the age of 13. In 238 BC, the rebellion of Changxin Hou Lai was put down, and then the power minister Lv Buwei was removed, and he began to dominate the political affairs. Reusing Li Si, Wang Jian, and others, from 230 BC to 221 BC, the six countries of Korea, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan, and Qi were eliminated successively, completing the great cause of unifying China and establishing a centralized and unified multi-ethnic nation. Country- Qin Dynasty.
In 221 BC, after Qin unified the six kingdoms, King Qin Yingzheng thought that he was “the three emperors of virtue and the five emperors”, so he adopted the “emperor” of the three emperors and the “emperor” of the five emperors to constitute the title of “emperor”, He was the first monarch to use the title of “Emperor” in Chinese history, so he called himself the “First Emperor”. At the same time, the central government implemented three public and nine officials to manage national affairs; the local system abolished the enfeoffment system and replaced it with the county system; at the same time, the same text, the same track, the unified currency, weights, and measures. Strike the Xiongnu to the north and march to Baiyue to the south to build the Great Wall; build a canal to connect the Yangtze River and the Pearl River system. However, in his later years, Emperor Qin Shihuang sought immortality and dreamed of longevity, harsh government and abused the people, strangled the people’s wisdom, and shaken the foundation of the Qin Dynasty’s rule. In 210 years ago, Qin Shihuang died on the dunes of Xingtai during his eastward tour.
Qin Shi Huang China two thousand years to lay the political system the basic pattern, the thinker of the Ming Dynasty Li Zhi as ” lasting one “.

Political action

First emperor

The princes of various countries before Qin Shihuang were called “Jun” or “king”. In the late Warring States period, Qin and Qi were once called “Emperors”, but this title did not go with each other at that time. Qin Shihuang, who ruled the world, thought that these titles were not enough to show his respect, so he ordered the ministers to discuss the titles. After some discussion, the prime minister Wang York, royal doctor Feng robbery, Ting Yu Li Si, and others that Wangzheng “Xingyi soldiers, disabled punish thieves, put down the world,” achievements “since ancient never had, five emperors of the Not enough”. They quoted the traditional honorific title, saying, “In ancient times there was an emperor, there was an emperor of land, there was an emperor of Thailand, and the emperor of Thailand was the most expensive”, and suggested that Qin Wangzheng adopt the title of ” Emperor of Thailand .  However, Qin Shihuang was not satisfied with this. He only used the word ” emperor ” and added the word “di” under it because there were ” three emperors and five emperors “, creating the title of ” emperor “.  Since then, “Emperor” has become the title of the supreme ruler of Chinese feudal society. To sanctify the status of the emperor, Qin Shihuang took a series of measures to “respect the emperor”:
(1)First, cancel the posthumous law. The posthumous title began at the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty and was given an evaluative title based on his life and deeds after the death of the emperor. But Qin Shihuang believes that it is too unreasonable and meaningless to “the son discusses the father and the minister discusses the emperor” like this. He announced the abolition of posthumous law, forbid future officials to evaluate himself.
(2)Secondly, the emperor called himself ” Zhen “. The meaning of the word “Zhen” is the same as that of “I”, and it can be used by ordinary people before, but Qin Shihuang restricted that only the emperor can call himself “Zhen”. The emperor’s order is called ” make ” or ” Zhao ” ( the order is called the system, the order is called the edict, and the effect of the two is different).
(3)Third, it is forbidden to mention the name of the emperor in the text, so avoid taboos. Whenever words such as “emperor” and “first emperor” are written on the document, a new line must be written in the top box.
(4)Finally, the large seal engraved with jade that was only used by the emperor could be called a ” xi “.


Qin Shihuang established a centralized system and political institutions. There are prime ministers, lieutenants, and doctors at the center. The prime minister has two members on the left and right. He is the head of the hundred officials and is in charge of political affairs. Taiwei is in charge of the military and is not often placed. Doctor Yu Shi is the deputy second of the prime minister, supervising hundreds of officials.
The prime minister, Qiu, royal doctor the following are specific division of duties Zhu Qing government, which has palm palace Yemen households doctor orders, palm palace guards stationed themselves, Wei Wei, Gyeonggi palm guards lieutenant, the torturers until provision of teamwork, palm Valley cargo of internal history rule millet, palm Shanhai Ikesawa of the tax and the ruler’s handicraft manufacturing to supply the royal less government, palm rule palace of which will be less government, palm typical passenger nationalities affairs and foreign affairs, palm ancestral rituals Bong often, the royal palm is a membership being examined, palm Yu Ma of Taipu and so on. The prime minister, the lieutenant, and the Yushi doctor discussed government affairs with other officials, and the emperor made the ruling.
In addition to this, the Qin Dynasty also had some more important official positions, such as Ph.D.- “Zhang Tonggujin”, that is, to be familiar with ancient and modern history for the emperor’s consultation, and at the same time in charge of book collection; classic country -in charge of ethnic minorities like Dianke The difference is that Danke is in charge of the exchanges with the Qin-friendly ethnic minorities, while Dian is responsible for the ethnic minorities that have surrendered to the Qin Dynasty; Zhanshi -manages the affairs of the queen and the prince. The central authority established by the Qin Dynasty has been imitated by successive dynasties.

Local agency

After Qin Shihuang annihilated the six countries, he adopted Li Si’s suggestion to abolish the enfeoffment system and change to the system of prefectures and counties. Local administrative agencies are divided into county and county levels. The main officials of counties and counties are appointed and removed by the central government. The county is set up with guards, Wei, and supervisors ( supervising Yushi ). The county guard governs its county. The county lieutenant assisted the county guard and dictated military affairs. The county supervisor is in charge of supervision matters. Qin Shihuang divided the country into 36 prefectures, which were subsequently increased to 41 prefectures.
In the county, there are orders ( county orders ) for those above 10,000 households, and heads (county chiefs) for those below 10,000 households. County magistrates and county magistrates have county prime ministers, county lieutenants, and other subordinates. County magistrates and county magistrates are mainly in charge of government affairs, county lieutenants are in charge of the military, and county chiefs are in charge of justice. Townships below the county level have four main functions: 1. Apportionment of corvee; 2. Expropriation of land taxes ; 3. Investigation and verification of the case of the defendant in the township; 4. Participation in the storage of grain in the state warehouse.
The three elders in the township were in charge of education, their husbands were in charge of litigation and taxation, and they wandered in charge of public security. The rural setting is the most basic administrative unit. There was typical, said offspring, he is, in Quebec, to “Hao Shuai” That is a strong person to whom. A strict Shiwu household registration organization is set up in the center to facilitate the dispatch of guards and collect taxes. It also stipulates mutual supervision and accusation of rape, one person commits a crime, and the neighbors sit together. Also, there are special institutions in charge of public security and thieves, called pavilions, and pavilions have pavilions. In addition to managing public security, the pavilion is also responsible for receiving officials and is in charge of transporting, purchasing, and delivering (documents) for the government.


South Korea’s strength is the weakest among the six countries, but its geographical location is the biggest obstacle to Qin’s reunification road. Qin Shihuang’s first attack target is South Korea. In the sixteenth year of the first emperor (231 BC), the “Fake Shou” (that is, the acting perfect) of Nanyang County, South Korea, Shiteng, offered Qin the territories under his jurisdiction. Nai Shi Teng was appointed by Qin Wangzheng as internal history and later sent him to attack South Korea.  In the seventeenth year of the first emperor (230 years ago), Neisten captured Han Wangan and South Korea fell.
In the eighteenth year of Emperor Shi Huang (229 years ago), Emperor Qin Shihuang sent Wang Jian to lead troops to attack Zhao. The Zhao State sent Li Mu and Sima Shang to lead troops to resist. Wang Jian used a lot of money to buy out Guo Kai, Zhao’s favorite minister, and asked him to spread rumors that Li Mu and Sima Shang were trying to rebel. Wang Zhao credulously believed the rumors and sent Zhao Cong and Yan Ju to replace Li Mu, who was later killed. In the nineteenth year of Emperor Qin’s administration (228 years ago), the Qin army broke Handan. [43]  Soon after, Zhao Wangqian, who had fled, was forced to descend to Qin, and the State of Zhao actually perished. [44]  But Gongzi Jia fled to Dai County ( Yu County, Hebei ) with a group of people, and became king on his own. [45]  The Later Qin Army captured the First Emperor after he destroyed the Kingdom of Yan in the twenty-five years (222 BC).
In the 22nd year of Emperor Shi Huang (225 years ago), Emperor Qin Shi Huang sent a young general, Wang Ben, to lead his army to besiege Daliang, the capital of Wei (Kaifeng, Henan). Because the Liangcheng defense was extremely strong after years of construction, the Qin army could not attack it by force. Wang Ben came up with a water attack. A large number of soldiers of the Qin army were arranged to dig channels to draw water from the Yellow River and the chasm and pour it into the beams. Three months later, the walls of Daliang were completely collapsed, and Wei Wangqi had to surrender. The State of Wei perished.
Emperor twenty-four years (223 years ago) captured Qin Chu ShouChun (Anhui Shou County ), captured the king of negative Chu, the Chu perish. In the twenty-five years of the first emperor (222 years ago), the army that had just destroyed the Chu in the south took advantage of victory to surrender the emperor and set up Kuaiji County. As a result, the Yangtze River Basin was all merged into Qin’s territory.
In the 21st year of the First Emperor (226 years ago), the Qin Army captured Yandu Ji (Beijing), and Yan Wangxi and Prince Dan fled to Liaodong County. Qin general Li Xin led the Qin army with thousands of people, chasing after prince Dan to Yanshui. Prince Dan survived because of lurking in the water. Later, after weighing the interests, Yan Wangxi sent someone to kill the Prince Pill and dedicated his head to the State of Qin, hoping to win a truce and keep the State of Yan alive. After Yan Wangxi fled to Liaodong, the main force of the Qin army was transferred to the southern front to attack the Chu. In the twenty-five years of the first emperor (222 years ago), Wang Ben was ordered to attack the remnants of the Yan Kingdom in Liaodong, capture Yan Wangxi, and the Yan Kingdom was destroyed.
In the twenty-sixth year of the first emperor (221 BC), the first emperor of Qin ordered Wang Ben to go south and attack Qi, one of the six eastern kingdoms. Wang Ben went south to defeat Qi, and he hardly encountered any resistance. Wang Ben led the army and came straight to Linzi. Qi Wangjian and Hou Sheng immediately surrendered to Qin. Qi state is destroyed.

Nanzheng Baiyue

In the 26th year of the First Emperor (221 years ago), after Qin Shihuang completed the great cause of unifying the Central Plains, after a series of preparations, in the 29th year of the First Emperor (218 years ago), Qin Shihuang ordered the general Tu Sui to lead an army of 500,000 and launched the South The battle of Baiyue, this war was the most difficult and fierce battle of the Qin Dynasty. The Qin army was divided into five routes, one attacking Dongou and Minyue, two attacking Nanyue, and the remaining two attacking Xie. “Huainanzi · Renjianxun” records the difficult journey of Qin Shihuang’s southern expedition to Baiyue: “Make Wei Tu Sui send 500,000 soldiers to the Five Armies… Three years without dismantling the armor and riding on the crossbow, so that Jianlu could not be paid; and he used his soldiers to cut the canal. and through the food channel, and the more people to war, to kill the king vomit West translation called on the song; and the more everyone burst into the book with the animals at the Moken Qin prisoner, with home Jie Chun thought it would, but the night attack Qin, big break, killing Wei Tu Ju, hundreds of thousands of dead in bloodshed, is made a suitable garrison to prepare for it. “Qin Junbing points Rd, the more the city Ridge in northern Guangxi, Hunan and southern Jiuyishan Jiang Xi Nankang and Yugan In other places, march to the Yue ethnic group in Guangdong and Guangxi. Stalemate before and after the war lasted three years.
In the thirty-three years of Emperor Shi Huang (214 years ago), Emperor Qin Shi Huang ordered Ren Xiao and Zhao Tuo to attack the Baiyue tribes again. The Qin army was like a broken bamboo, and the entire Lingnan area was included in the territory of the Qin Dynasty from then on.
Historical records say that in the pre-Qin period, Lingnan was the land of the savannah and the slash-and-burn clan society. It was not until the Qin Army brought advanced technology to the south that it was integrated into civilization. The Qin Army’s southward journey brought the agricultural technology and advanced culture of the Northern Central Plains, which enabled the Lingnan region to quickly transition from the era of slash and burn to the era of agricultural civilization. The Qin’s attack on Baiyue was an important part of Qin Shihuang’s unification war. It played an important role in promoting the integration of the Central Plains and Baiyue and the development of Baiyue’s society, politics, economy, and culture.

North Strike the Huns

During the Warring States Period, the countries in the Central Plains were busy fighting and had no time to visit the north. The Huns often raid the northern borders of the Qin, Zhao, and Yan countries that bordered it. To relieve the Xiongnu’s threat to Qin, Emperor Qin Shihuang ordered Mengtian to attack the Xiongnu by an army of 300,000.
In the spring of the 33rd year of the first emperor (214 BC), the main force of the Mengtian reign went out of the Great Wall from Shangjun (Junzhifushi, south of Yulin City, Shaanxi) to the north and attacked the east; it is west. The Huns fled. Qin then took the land of Henan (south of the Wujia River in Inner Mongolia and the Ikezhao League). 44 counties were set up along the river and settled down. Because Hun continues to attack, the fall of the following year, the emperor complex life Penpower army crossed the Yellow River and north, take high-Que (central Inner Mongolia Wolf meter blue Yamaguchi), captured the Yangshan (Hebei Wolf, Yin), North false (Ukraine Mountain and river area to the south of the Jia River). The Huns were defeated and migrated north. To consolidate the Henan region, the Qin Dynasty established Jiuyuan County (the prefecture governed Jiuyuan, northwest of Baotou City, Inner Mongolia). This counterattack eliminated the intrusion and destruction of the Xiongnu aristocracy, and “received the land of Henan”, so that the vast areas in and out of the current Hetao, north, and south of the river, were freed from the disaster of the military calamity in a fairly long period of time.

Develop Northern Xinjiang

At the same time as the Northern Expedition of the Huns, the court moved to a large number of prisoners, “Shizhichu County”. The first emperor’s thirty-five years (212 years ago) further increased the number of people migrating to the border. In addition to the extermination of prisoners, the general public is encouraged to move to the border areas. For example, in the thirty-sixth year of Emperor Shi (211 years ago), 30,000 people moved from the inland to Beige and Yuzhong to settle down at one time. Anyone who went there would be worshipped at the first level. These relocated people and prisoners played an important role in the development of the northern frontiers and the enrichment of the armed forces.

Exploit the Southwest

To open up the southwest, Qin Shihuang decided to open up the southwest because of the long-term contracts between the people of all ethnic groups in the southwest and the mainland. The faction often leads to the southwestern barbarians. Chang Qian was obstructed by its traffic, and Nai Fazhong excavated a plank road from Yibin, Sichuan to Dianchi Lake in Yunnan. It was named Wuchi Road because it was “difficult” and “the road was only five feet wide”. After the plank road was opened, the forces of Da Qin directly arrived at Qilan, Yelang, Qiongdu, Kunming, and other places, and set up officials here to “set up officials” and set up administrative institutions. At the same time, Qin passed through Shu County, strengthened the ties with Qiongdu, Ruo, and Ran, and brought them into the administrative system of the county system. [80]  Since then, the Southwestern Minority Region has not only strengthened its relationship with the interior but has also become a part of a unified multi-ethnic country. Also, Qin Shihuang opened a five-foot road to the southwest, roughly from Yibin, Sichuan to Qujing, Yunnan, controlling the local tribal states and extending political power into the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau.

Build the Great Wall

great wall

After Qin destroyed the Six Kingdoms, he began to build the Great Wall in the north. At that time, the Central Plains had just been unified, and the original aristocratic powers in various regions were still very strong. If the traffic and ties between the central and local areas are not maintained, the country will be divided again at any time. Therefore, it is necessary to improve as soon as possible between the central and the localities and other counties and counties. Therefore, the roads must be constructed as soon as possible.
Due to years of war, the agricultural facilities of the original countries have suffered considerable damage, or have fallen into disrepair for a long time due to the war; agricultural production must be restored as soon as possible after reunification; therefore, considerable manpower was spent on dredging rivers, repairing canals, and affecting waterway traffic. Agricultural irrigation is beneficial and necessary.
The Great Wall was built to protect the lives and property of the people on the northern border, and its purpose was also to reduce the burden on the people. Since the Huns are nomads, their cavalry has a large range of activities. Without the Great Wall, many troops would be required to defend it. The people have increased a great burden. He didn’t create the Great Wall. He just connected the original Great Wall to the north of Qin, Zhao, and Yan.

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