Li Bai Poem: For Wang the Twelfth Who Drank Alone on a Cold Night – 李白《答王十二寒夜独酌有怀》

答王十二寒夜独酌有怀

李白

昨夜吴中雪,子猷[1]佳兴发。

万里浮云卷碧山,青天中道流孤月。

孤月沧浪[2]河汉[3]清,北斗错落长庚[4]明。

怀余对酒夜霜白,玉床金井冰峥嵘[5]

人生飘忽百年内,且须酣畅万古情。

君不能狸膏金距[6]学斗鸡,坐令鼻息吹虹霓[7]

君不能学哥舒[8],横行青海夜带刀,西屠石堡取紫袍。

吟诗作赋北窗里,万言不值一杯水。

世人闻此皆掉头,有如东风射马耳。

鱼目亦笑我,谓与明月[9]同。

骅骝拳跼[10]不能食,蹇驴得志鸣春风。

《折杨》、《黄华》[11]合流俗,晋君听琴枉《清角》[12]

《巴人》谁肯和《阳春》,楚地犹来贱奇璞[13]

黄金散尽交不成,白首为儒身被轻。

一谈一笑失颜色,苍蝇贝锦[14]喧谤声。

曾参岂是杀人者?谗言三及慈母惊[15]

与君论心握君手,荣辱于余亦何有?

孔圣犹闻伤凤麟[16],董龙[17]更是何鸡狗!

一生傲岸苦不谐,恩疏媒劳志多乖。

严陵[18]高揖[19]汉天子,何必长剑拄颐[20]事玉阶。

达亦不足贵,究亦不足悲。

韩信羞将绛、灌比[21],祢衡耻逐屠沽儿[22]

君不见李北海[23],英风豪气今何在!

君不见裴尚书[24],土坟三尺蒿棘居!

少年早欲五湖去[25],见此弥将钟鼎疏。

注释:

[1] 子猷(yóu):王徽之,王羲之之子。《世说新语·任诞》记载:王子猷居山阴,夜大雪,眠觉,开室,命酌酒。四望噤然,因起彷徨,咏左思《招隐诗》。忽忆戴安道,时戴在剡,即便夜乘小船就之。经宿方至,造门不前而返。人问其故,王曰:“吾本乘兴而行,兴尽而返,何必见戴?”

[2] 沧浪:“沧凉”。寒冷之意。

[3] 河汉:这里指银河。

[4] 长庚:黄昏时出现在西方的金星的名称。

[5] “玉床”句:晨见东方为启明,昏见西方为长庚。床,井栏。玉床金井,言其美丽之饰,如玉如金。峥嵘,高峻突出的样子。

[6] 狸膏金距:狸膏,即狸猫的膏脂。斗鸡时,取狸膏涂于鸡头,则斗无敌。因为狸善捕鸡,鸡闻到狸味就会恐惧逃走。金距,施金芒于距,即给鸡爪套上锐利的金属爪套。距,鸡附足骨。

[7] “坐令”句:出自李白《古风其二十四》,原诗为讽刺斗鸡之徒不可一世的嚣张气焰:“路逢斗鸡者,冠盖何辉赫!鼻息干虹霓,行人皆怵惕。”斗鸡者趾高气扬。吹出的气息都能冲上天,使路边的行人胆战心惊,表现其小人得志之态。

[8] 哥舒:哥舒翰,唐朝赫赫有名的战将,曾为安西节度使。天宝七年大破吐蕃军于青海,又筑城于青海中龙驹岛,吐蕃屏迹不敢近青海。天宝八年攻下吐蕃要塞石堡城,功勋卓著。

[9] 明月:明月珠,夜明珠。此句源自成语“鱼目混珠”。

[10] 骅骝(huá liú)拳跼:骅骝。骏马名。拳跼,不伸也,约束窘促,喻不能发挥才能。

[11] 《折杨》、《黄华》:与《巴人》皆古流行通俗乐曲。

[12] “晋君”句:典出《韩非子·十过》。“清角”是古代悲壮乐调,据说只能给有才德者听。晋平公德薄,却强迫师旷奏,结果风雨大作,裂帏破幕,屋瓦飞散。平公大惊而病,晋大旱三年。

[13] “楚地”句:用汴和献玉事。出自《韩非子·和氏第十三》:楚人和氏得玉璞楚山中,奉而献之厉王,厉王使玉人相之,玉人曰:“石也。”王以和为诳,而刖(yuè)其左足。及厉王薨(hōnɡ),武王即位,和又奉其璞而献之武王,武王使玉人相之,又曰:“石也。”王又以和为诳,而刖其右足。武王薨,文王即位,和乃抱其璞而哭于楚山之下,三日三夜,泣尽而继之以血。王闻之,使人问其故,曰:“天下之刖者多矣,子奚哭之悲也?”和曰:“吾非悲刖也,悲夫宝玉而题之以石,贞士而名之以诳,此吾所以悲也。”王乃使玉人理其璞而得宝焉,遂命曰:“和氏之璧。”

[14] 苍蝇贝锦:苍蝇,即青蝇。出自《诗经·小雅·青蝇》:“营营青蝇,止于樊。岂弟君子,无信谗言。营营青蝇,止于棘。谗人罔极,交乱四国。营营青蝇,止于榛。谗人罔极,构我二人。”贝锦,锦上贝状图案,喻花言巧语。出自《诗经·小雅·巷伯》:“萋兮斐兮,成是贝锦。彼谮(zèn)人者,亦已大甚!”苍蝇、贝锦均是讽刺妄进谗言的小人的。

[15] “谗言”句:曾参,春秋孔丘学生。在郑时,有同姓名者杀人,别人误以为他,告诉其母。其母正织布,不信安坐。又两人来告,其母疑,投杼下机,越墙逃走。

[16] “孔圣”句:孔圣,丘曾为凤鸟不至而哀叹,又为麒麟被获而伤愁。以为生逢乱世。

[17] 董龙:北朝秦主苻生宠臣。宰相王堕刚直,上朝每不交言董,人劝他敷衍,曰:“董龙是何鸡狗,而令国士与之言乎?”后为董龙所杀。

[18] 严陵:东汉隐士严光,字子陵,曾与光武帝刘秀同学。秀为皇帝,请严去。严到宾馆高卧不起,不行君臣之礼,仍愿回富春江钓鱼。

[19] 高揖:长揖而不下拜,是平交之礼。

[20] 长剑拄颐:佩剑长及面颊。

[21] “韩信”句:汉淮阴侯韩信一向自视颇高,《史记·淮阴侯列传》:“信知汉王畏恶其能,尝称病不朝从。……居常鞅鞅,羞与绛、灌等列”。绛、灌是指绛侯和灌婴这两个汉初功臣。

[22] 屠沽儿:指屠户与酒家。《后汉书·祢衡传》记载,建安初年,祢(mí)衡从荆州游历至许昌。“是时许都新建.贤士大夫四方来集”。有人建议他去拜见当时的名士陈长文和司马伯达,谁知祢衡根本看不起他们,回答说:“吾焉能从屠沽儿耶!”意思是我怎么能跟杀猪卖酒的人混在一起呢?

[23] 李北海:李邕,字泰和,人称李北海,广陵江都人。尝拜左拾遗。开元初,历殿中侍御史,执政忌其才,频被贬斥。后为北海太守,李林甫傅以罪,杖杀之。

[24] 裴尚书:指刑部尚书裴敦复。奸相李林甫利用户部尚书裴宽和刑部尚书裴敦复之间的矛盾,趁势挑拨,怂恿裴敦复买通杨玉环的姐姐在皇上面前说裴宽坏话,致使裴宽被贬为睢阳太守。李林甫另以明迁暗降的手法,任命裴敦复为岭南五府经略等使。裴敦复稍有迟疑.便被李林甫反奏一本,以逗留不到任为由,贬为淄州太守。

[25] 五湖去:春秋越大夫范蠡助勾践败吴,功成身退,泛舟五湖。

For Wang the Twelfth Who Drank Alone on a Cold Night

Li Bai

It snowed on southern shore last night;

You drank alone with keen delight.

Clouds float for miles and miles like rolled-up mountains high;

The lonely moon drifts in the midst of the sky.

The same lonely moon swims in Silver River dear;

The evening star is bright when Dipper stars appear.

You think of me drinking on a night white with frost;

The golden well with rails of jade in ice is lost.

Men live like floating clouds within a hundred years,

So we should drink our fill like our ancient compeers.

You cannot do as the eunuchs fond of cock fight,

Who blow their breath like rainbow bright.

You cannot do as the general with sword in hand,

Who won his violet robe by slaughter on the land.

Writing verse or prose, by north window you remain;

Ten thousand words not worth a cup of water plain.

Hearing of this, people would turn their heads away,

Just as a horse with ears hurt by east wind would neigh.

The fish’s eye mistaken for a pearl laughs at me,

Saying I cannot shine as the moon or as he.

A horse can’t gallop when it has nothing to eat;

A donkey brays in spring breeze though crippled in fret.

The common people like to sing the vulgar thing.

How could the sacred lute please a secular king?

By popular musicians no fine music’s played;

The Southerners usually look down on rare jade.

No friendship will be made when I’ve spent all my gold,

Though my hair turns white, I receive but glances cold.

My face has lost color when I speak in low voice;

For slanderers like flies make a deafening noise.

The sage’s a murderer, how could that be believed?

The rumor thrice heard, the sage’s mother was deceived.

We speak our bosom hand in hand and face to face.

What do I care about vain glory or disgrace?

Confucius only grieved no phoenix would appear.

Why should we hold these lower animals in fear?

Proud all my life long, with them I’m not in accord;

In disfavor, I’m alienated from the lord.

The hermit said to the emperor goodbye.

Why should he serve with his long sword in palace high?

The successful are not those we adore,

Nor the unsuccessful those we deplore.

General Han was ashamed of his compeers;

A loyal man despises one at whom he jeers.

Have you not seen Li of North Sea?

Brave as he was, where now is he?

Have you not seen Secretary Pei

Buried among thorns? What to say?

While young, I wished to wander on the lake;

Now older, born the dreams of glory I’m awake.

The poet talks about his friendship, his despise of slanderers, his love for the hermit and the loyal general, his sympathy with Li and Pei unjustly punished by the prime minister, and his wish to wander on the lake like General Fan with the Beauty in 473 BC.

《答王十二寒夜独酌有怀》是唐代伟大诗人李白的作品。这是一首倾诉自己怀抱的抒情诗,揭露了当时朝廷小人得志,有才能的人不被重用,反遭谗毁的现象,表示要超脱荣辱穷达之念,像严光、范蠡那样飘然隐居。此诗开头十句为第一段,描写王十二雪夜独酌、怀念远人(李白)的情景;十一至十九句为第二段,揭露当时权贵当道,专横跋扈,正直的读书人却被排斥,明为王十二实亦为己鸣不平;二十至三十三句为第三段,通过一连串的比喻,揭露当时是非不明、邪正不分的社会现实,抒写自己曲高和寡,遭人谗毁的悲愤;最后十八句为第四段,慨言荣辱穷达之不足论。全诗长达五十一句,主题集中,层次井然,语言犀利,比喻生动,其抒情具有针对现实的议论性,显示出李诗的鲜明个性。

A poem written by Li Bai, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty. It is a lyrical poem about his own ambitions, exposing the phenomenon of villainy at the imperial court at that time and the phenomenon of talented people not being reappointed but being slandered, expressing his desire to transcend the thoughts of honor, shame and poverty and to live in seclusion like Yan Guang and Fan Li. The first ten lines of the poem describe the scene of Wang XII drinking alone in the snowy night and remembering the distant person (Li Bai); the second lines, from eleven to nineteen, reveal that the powerful and the domineering were in power at that time, but the upright scholars were rejected, so Wang XII expresses his own injustice; the third lines, from twenty to thirty-three, expose the social reality of the time when right and wrong were unclear and evil was not distinguished from right and wrong through a series of metaphors. The last eighteen lines are the fourth stanza, in which the poet laments the inadequacy of honor, shame and poverty. The poem is fifty-one lines long, with a concentrated theme, a clear hierarchy, sharp language and vivid metaphors, and a realistic and polemical lyricism, showing the distinctive personality of Li’s poem.

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