Xu Hun Poem: Memories of Jinling – 许浑《金陵怀古》

金陵怀古

许浑

玉树[1]歌残王气终,

景阳[2]兵合戍楼空。

松楸[3]远近千官冢,

禾黍[4]高低六代宫。

石燕[5]拂云晴亦雨,

江豚[6]吹浪夜还风。

英雄一去豪华尽,

唯有青山似洛中。

注释:

[1] 玉树:指《玉树后庭花》曲,据说是南朝陈后主创作的。

[2] 景阳:指景阳宫,陈后主所居住的宫殿。

[3] 松楸(qiū):指坟墓上栽的树。李白《拟恨赋》称“一望蒿里,松楸骨寒”。

[4] 禾黍:《诗经》有《黍离》篇,后人用“黍离之悲”来写亡国之痛。

[5] 石燕:据《湘中记》记载,零陵有石燕,遇见风雨就能飞翔,风雨停止又会回归石形。

[6] 江豚:据《南越志》记载,江豚像猪,生活在水中,如果江豚在水中跳跃,就会起风。

Memories of Jinling

Xu Hun

The kingdom collapsed after the Song of Jade Tree;

The garrison deserted when came the enemy.

Planted with pines, a thousand tombs spread far and nigh;

Buried amid the weed, palaces stand low and high.

The swallow of stone scrapes the white cloud, rain or shine;

The night breeze blows with waves raised by the river swine.

The splendor fades when heroes are gone one and all;

Only green hills look like the ancient capital.

Jinling was the capital of the six dynasties. The last king of Chen, author of the Song of Jade Tree, surrendered and the kingdom collapsed in 604. The swallow of stone was a statue in the palace and the river swine was said to be capable of raising waves.

《金陵怀古四首》 是宋代文学家王安石的组诗作品。这四首诗主旨为感慨兴亡。第一首诗表面上是怀古吊今的嗟叹,其实隐含着历史朝代的兴衰更替具有必然性的思想。其余三首则在第一首的基调上进行推衍演绎。后三首的前半部分都是对宋太祖夺取金陵统一全国的勋业的歌颂,后半部分则多为寄托兴亡的感慨,概括历代政权盛衰的规律。全诗语言高度概括精练,主题鲜明,情感充盈,既包含着诗人的丰富感情和想象,也包含着思想家深沉的睿智和政治家匡时忧国的怀抱。

Four Poems from the Golden Lings” is a group of poems by Wang Anshi, a writer of the Song Dynasty. The main theme of these four poems is to lament the rise and fall of the dynasty. The first poem is apparently a lament for the past and the present, but in fact it implies the idea that the rise and fall of historical dynasties are inevitable. The remaining three poems build on the tone of the first one. The first half of the last three poems is a tribute to the Song Emperor’s success in seizing the Jinling and unifying the country, while the second half of the poem is mostly a lament for the rise and fall of the Song dynasty, summarizing the pattern of the rise and fall of successive dynasties. The language of the poem is highly concise, the theme is clear, and the emotion is full of rich feelings and imagination of the poet, as well as the deep wisdom of the thinker and the ambition of the politician to protect the country.

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