Li Shangyin Poem: On the Tower of the City Wall – 李商隐《安定城楼》

安定[1]城楼

李商隐

迢递[2]高城百尺楼,

绿杨枝外尽汀洲[3]

贾生[4]年少虚垂涕,

王粲[5]春来更远游。

永忆江湖归白发,

欲回天地入扁舟。

不知腐鼠成滋味,

猜意鹓雏[6]竟未休。

注释:

[1] 安定:唐代泾原节度使府所在地,故址在夸甘肃省泾川县北。唐文宗大和九年(835),李商隐的岳父王茂元任泾原节度使,李商隐于唐文宗开成三年(838)在其幕府中任掌书记,诗当写于此时。

[2] 迢递:遥远连绵。此形容楼高而且连续绵延。

[3] 汀洲:汀指水边之地,洲是水中之泥沙淤积的陆地。

[4] 贾生:指西汉人贾谊。贾谊年少即颇通诸子百家之书,文帝召以为博士,一岁中官至太中大夫。贾谊认为“时事可为痛哭者一,可为流涕者二,可为太息者六”,因此“教上书陈政事,多所欲匡建”,但文帝并未采纳他的建议。后来他呕血而亡,年仅三十三岁。商隐此时二十七岁,以贾生自比。

[5] 王粲:东汉末年人,建安七子之一。《三国志·魏书·王粲传》载:王粲年轻时曾流寓荆州,依附刘表,但并不得志。他曾于春日作《登楼赋》,其中有句云:“虽信美而非吾土兮,曾何足以少留?”商隐此以寄人篱下的王粲自比。

[6] 鹓(yuān)雏:古代传说中一种像凤凰的鸟。《庄子·秋水》:“惠子相梁,庄子往见之。或谓惠子曰:’庄子来,欲代子相。’于是惠子恐,搜于国中三日三夜。庄子往见之,曰:’南方有鸟,其名为鹓雏……发于南海而飞于北海,非梧桐不止,非练实不食,非醴泉不饮。于是鸱得腐鼠,鹓雏过之。仰而视之曰:嚇!今子欲以子之梁国而赫我邪?’”李商隐以庄子和鹓雏自比,表明自己有高远的心志,并非汲汲于官位利禄之辈,但谗佞之徒却以小人之心度之。

On the Tower of the City Wall

Li Shangyin

From hundred-foot-high city wall I look afar;

Beyond green willow trees the sandy islets are.

I remember a scholar while young shed vain tears,

And a famed scholar roamed in the spring of his years.

I can’t forget white-haired General on the lake floating,

After changing the face of the world he went boating.

An owl might feed on dead rats with good appetite,

But a phoenix would perch on trees of lofty height.

《安定城楼》是唐代诗人李商隐的诗作。此诗抒发了作者虽仕途受阻,遭到一些人的谗伤,但并不气馁,反而鄙视和嘲笑谗佞的小人的坚定胸怀,充分地体现了作者青年时期的高远抱负和奋发精神。全诗语言含蓄犀利,痛快沉着,用典工丽典雅,极富神韵。颈联两句写平生抱负,笔力遒劲,境界阔大,意味深长,是历来广为传诵的名句。

The poem “On the Tower of the City Wall” is a poem written by Li Shangyin, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poem expresses the author’s determination to despise and ridicule the slanderous villains, despite the fact that his career was blocked and he was slandered and hurt by some people, fully reflecting his lofty ambition and vigorous spirit in his youth. The language of the poem is subtle and sharp, painful and calm, and the use of allusions is elegant and graceful, rich in charm. The two lines of the neck couplet are about the ambition of the author’s life, which are powerful, broad and meaningful, and have been widely recited.

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