Bai Juyi Poem: The Everlasting Longing – 白居易《长恨歌》

长恨歌

白居易

汉皇[1]重色思倾国[2],御宇[3]多年求不得。

杨家有女[4]初长成,养在深闺人未识。

天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧。

回眸[5]一笑百媚生,六宫[6]粉黛[7]无颜色。

春寒赐浴华清池[8],温泉水滑洗凝脂[9]

侍儿扶起娇无力,始是新承恩泽[10]时。

云鬓[11]花颜金步摇[12],芙蓉帐暖度春宵。

春宵[13]苦短[14]日高起,从此君王不早朝[15]

承欢侍宴无闲暇,春从春游夜专夜[16]

后宫[17]佳丽[18]三千[19]人,三千宠爱在一身[20]

金屋[21]妆成娇侍夜,玉楼宴罢醉和春[22]

姊妹弟兄皆列土,可怜[23]光彩生门户。

遂令天下父母心,不重生男重生女。

骊宫[24]高处入青云,仙乐[25]风飘处处闻。

缓歌谩舞[26]凝丝竹[27],尽日君王看不足[28]

渔阳鼙鼓动地来,惊破霓裳羽衣曲[29]

九重城阙烟尘生[30],千乘万骑西南行。

翠华[31]摇摇行复止,西出都门百余里。

六军[32]不发无奈何,婉转[33]蛾眉[34]马前死。

花钿[35]委地[36]无人收,翠翘[37]金雀[38]玉搔头[39]

君王[40]掩面救不得,回看血泪相和流。

黄埃[41]散漫风萧索,云栈萦纡登剑阁[42]

峨嵋山[43]下少人行,旌旗无光日色薄[44]

蜀江水碧蜀山青,圣主[45]朝朝暮暮情。

行宫[46]见月伤心色,夜雨闻铃肠断声。

天旋地转[47]回龙驭[48],到此踌躇不能去。

马嵬坡下泥土中,不见玉颜[49]空死处。

君臣相顾尽沾衣[50],东望都门[51]信马[52]归。

归来池苑皆依旧,太液[53]芙蓉[54]未央[55]柳。

芙蓉如面柳如眉,对此如何不泪垂。

春风桃李花开日,秋雨梧桐叶落时。

西宫[56]南内[57]多秋草,落叶满阶红不扫。

梨园弟子[58]白发新,椒房阿监[59]青娥[60]老。

夕殿萤[61]飞思悄然[62],孤灯挑尽未成眠。

迟迟[63]钟鼓初长夜,耿耿[64]星河[65]欲曙天。

鸳鸯瓦[66]冷霜华[67]重,翡翠衾[68]寒谁与共。

悠悠生死别经年,魂魄不曾来入梦。

临邛道士鸿都客,能以精诚致[69]魂魄。

为感君王辗转[70]思,遂教方士殷勤觅。

排云驭气奔如电,升天入地求之遍。

上穷碧落[71]下黄泉,两处茫茫皆不见。

忽闻海上有仙山,山在虚无缥缈间。

楼阁玲珑五云起,其中绰约多仙子。

中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是。

金阙西厢叩玉扃,转教小玉报双成。

闻道汉家[72]天子使,九华帐里梦魂惊。

揽衣[73]推枕起徘徊,珠箔银屏迤逦开。

云鬓半偏新睡觉[74],花冠不整下堂来。

风吹仙袂[75]飘飘举,犹似霓裳羽衣舞。

玉容寂寞[76]泪阑干[77],梨花一枝春带雨。

含情凝睇谢[78]君王,一别音容两渺茫。

昭阳殿里恩爱绝,蓬莱宫中日月长。

回头下望人寰[79]处,不见长安见尘雾。

惟将旧物表深情,钿合金钗寄将去。

钗留一股合一扇[80],钗擘黄金合分钿。

但教[81]心似金钿坚,天上人间会相见。

临别殷勤[82]重寄词,词中有誓两心知。

七月七日长生殿,夜半无人私语时。

在天愿作比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝[83]

天长地久有时尽,此恨绵绵无绝期[84]

注释:

[1] 汉皇:指唐玄宗。

[2] 倾国:形容女子极其美貌。

[3] 御宇:治理天下。

[4] 杨家有女:指杨玉环,蒲州永乐(今山西永济)人。幼时养在叔父家。

[5] 眸:眼珠。

[6] 六宫:本专指皇后寝宫,后泛指妃嫔居处。

[7] 粉黛:代指美女。

[8] 华清池:华清宫温泉,在今陕西临潼。

[9] 凝脂:指白嫩光泽的肌肤。

[10] 新承恩泽:初受宠爱。

[11] 云鬓:形容女子鬓发轻盈飘逸。

[12] 金步摇:金制垂珠头钗,行则摇动。

[13] 春宵:春夜。

[14] 苦短:暗示欢愉无厌,故嫌夜短。

[15] 早朝:早晨上朝听政。

[16] 夜专夜:一夜连着一夜,整日整夜。

[17] 宫:后妃所居宫室。

[18] 佳丽:美女。

[19] 三千:极言其多。

[20] 一身:指杨贵妃一人。

[21] 金屋:用汉武帝“金屋藏娇”典。指杨贵妃所居之处。

[22] 醉和春:指酒与情同醉。

[23] 可怜:可羡。

[24] 骊宫:指骊山华清宫。

[25] 仙乐:形容乐声美妙,非人间能闻。

[26] 缓歌慢舞:轻歌曼舞。

[27] 凝丝竹:指歌舞紧扣乐声。丝竹,弦乐和管乐的合称。

[28] 看不足:看不厌。

[29] 霓裳羽衣曲:舞曲名。

[30] “九重”句:九重城阙,指京城长安。烟尘,烽烟尘土,指战火。

[31] 翠华:皇帝仪仗用翠鸟羽毛为饰的旗帜。

[32] 六军:此指皇帝的扈从部队。

[33] 婉转:缠绵委屈貌。

[34] 蛾眉:这里指杨贵妃。

[35] 花钿:金玉制花形首饰。

[36] 委地:落地。

[37] 翠翘:形似翠鸟尾的首饰。

[38] 金雀:钗名。

[39] 玉搔头:玉簪。

[40] 君王:指唐玄宗。

[41] 黄埃:黄色尘土。

[42] “云栈”句:高耸入云的栈道。萦纡,弯曲盘旋。剑阁,在今四川剑阁县东北大、小剑山之间。

[43] 峨嵋山:在今四川峨嵋县南,此泛指蜀山。

[44] 日色薄:日光黯淡。

[45] 圣主:指唐玄宗。

[46] 行宫:皇帝出行时的住所。

[47] 天旋地转:形容时局大变。

[48] 回龙驭:指唐玄宗还京。

[49] 玉颜:美女,此指杨贵妃。

[50] 沾衣:指落泪。

[51] 都门:长安城门。

[52] 信马:任马奔走,不加约束。

[53] 太液:池名。

[54] 芙蓉:荷花。

[55] 未央:宫名,此泛指唐代宫苑。

[56] 西宫:太极宫。

[57] 南内:兴庆宫。唐玄宗返京后的两处住所。

[58] 梨园弟子:由玄宗执教的宫内习艺者。

[59] 椒房阿监:后妃宫中的女官。

[60] 青娥:青春美貌。

[61] 萤:萤火虫。

[62] 思悄然:情意萧瑟寂寞。

[63] 迟迟:缓慢悠长。

[64] 耿耿:明亮貌。

[65] 河:指银河。

[66] 鸳鸯瓦:指嵌合成对的瓦片。

[67] 霜华:霜花。

[68] 翡翠衾:指绣有成双翡翠鸟的被子。

[69] 致:招来。

[70] 辗转:翻来覆去。

[71] 碧落:道家称天界为碧落。

[72] 汉家:唐朝。

[73] 揽衣:披衣。

[74] 觉:睡醒。

[75] 袂:衣袖。

[76] 寂寞:黯淡失神貌。

[77] 阑干:纵横流淌。

[78] 谢:告诉。

[79] 人寰:人世间。

[80] 一扇:一片。

[81] 但教:只要让。

[82] 殷勤:反复多次。

[83] 连理枝:不同根的树木枝条连在一起。

[84] 绝期:中断的时候。

The Everlasting Longing

Bai Juyi

The beauty-loving monarch longed year after year

To find a beautiful lady without a peer.

A maiden of the Yangs to womanhood just grown,

In inner chambers bred, to the world was unknown.

Endowed with natural beauty too hard to hide,

She was chosen one day to be the monarch’s bride.

Turning her head, she smiled so sweet and full of grace

That she outshone in six palaces the fairest face.

She bathed in glassy water of Warm-fountain Pool

Which laved and smoothed her creamy skin when spring was cool

Without her maids’ support, she was too tired to move,

And this was when she first received the monarch’s love,

Flower-like face and cloud-like hair, golden-headdressed.

In lotus-adorned curtain she spent the night blessed.

She slept till the sun rose high for the blessed night was short,

From then on the monarch held no longer morning court.

In revels as in feasts she shared her lord’s delight,

His companion on trips and his mistress at night.

In inner palace dwelt three thousand ladies fair,

On her alone was lavished royal love and care.

Her beauty served the night when dressed up in Golden Bower,

She was drunk with wine and spring at banquet in Jade Tower.

Her sisters and brothers all received rank and fief,

And honors showered on her household, to the grief

Of fathers and mothers who would rather give birth

To a fair maiden than to any son on earth,

The lofty palace towered high into the cloud;

With divine music borne on the breeze the air was loud.

Seeing slow dance and hearing fluted or stringed song,

The emperor was never tired the whole day long.

But rebels beat their war drums, making the earth quake

And “Song of Rainbow Skirt and Coat of Feathers” break,

A cloud of dust was raised o’er city walls nine-fold;

Thousands of chariots and horsemen southwestward rolled.

Imperial flags moved slowly now and halted then.

And thirty miles from Western Gate they stopped again.

Six armies-what could be done-would not march with speed

Unless fair Lady Yang be killed before the steed.

None would pick up her hairpin fallen on the ground

Nor golden bird nor comb with which her head was crowned.

The monarch could not save her and hid his face in fear;

Turning his head, he saw her blood mix with his tear.

The yellow dust widespread, the wind blew desolate;

A serpentine plank path led to cloud-capped Sword Gate.

Below the Eyebrow Mountains wayfarers were few;

In fading sunlight royal standards lost their hue,

On Western water blue and Western mountains green

The monarch’s heart was daily gnawed by sorrow keen.

The moon viewed from his tent shed a soul-searing light;

The bells heard in night rain made a heart-rending sound.

Suddenly turned the tide. Returning from his flight,

The monarch could not tear himself away from the ground

Where’ mid the clouds beneath the Slope he couldn’t forget

The fair-faced Lady Yang who was unfairly slain.

He looked at his courtiers, with tears his robe was wet;

They rode east to the capital but with loose rein.

Come back, he found her pond and garden in old place,

With lotus in the lake and willows by the hall,

Willow leaves like her brows and lotus like her face,

At the sight of all these, how could his tears not fall?

Or when in vernal breeze were peach and plum full-blown

Or when in autumn rain parasol leaves were shed?

In Western as in Southern Court was grass o’ergrown;

With fallen leaves unswept the marble steps turned red,

Actors, although still young, began to have hair grey.

Eunuchs and waiting maids looked old in palace deep.

Fireflies flitting the hall, mutely he pined away;

The lonely lampwick bumed out, still he could not sleep.

Slowly beat drums and rang bells, night began to grow long;

Bright shone the Starry Stream, daybreak seemed to come late,

The lovebird tiles grew chilly with hoar frost so strong;

His kingfisher quilt was cold, not shared by a mate.

One long, long year the dead with the living was parted;

Her soul came not in dreams to see the broken-hearted.

A taoist sorcerer came to the palace door,

Skilled to summon the spirits from the other shore.

Moved by the monarch’s yearning for the departed fair,

He was ordered to seek for her everywhere.

Borne on the air, like flash of lightning flew;

In heaven and on earth he searched through and through.

Up to the azure vault and down to deepest place,

Nor above nor below could he e’er find her trace.

He learned that on the sea were fairy mountains proud,

Which now appeared now disappeared amid the cloud

Of rainbow colors, where rose magnificent bowers

And dwelt so many fairies as graceful as flowers.

Among them was a queen whose name was Eyer True;

Her snow-white skin and sweet face might afford a clue,

Knocking at western gate of palace hall, he bade

The fair porter to inform the queen’s waiting maid,

When she heard that there came the monarch’s embassy,

The queen was startled out of dreams in her canopy.

Pushing aside the pillow, she rose and got dressed,

Passing through silver screen and pearl shade to meet the guest.

Her cloud-like hair awry, not full awake at all,

Her flowery cap slanted, she came into the hall.

The wind blew up her fairy sleeves and made them float

As if she danced still “Rainbow Skirt and Feathered Coat.”

Her jade-white face crisscrossed with tears in lonely world

Like a spray of pear blossoms in spring rain impearled.

She bade him thank her lord, lovesick and broken-hearted;

They knew nothing of each other after they parted,

Love and happiness long ended within palace walls;

Days and nights appeared long in the Fairyland halls.

Turning her head and fixing on the earth her gaze,

She found no capital’ mid clouds of dust and haze.

To show her love was deep, she took out keepsakes old

For him to carry back, hairpin and case of gold.

Keeping one side of the case and one wing of the pin;

She sent to her lord the other half of the twin.

“If our two hearts as finn as the gold should remain,

In heaven or on earth some time we’ll meet again,”

At parting, she confided to the messenger

A secret vow known only to her lord and her.

On seventh day of seventh moon when none was near,

At midnight in Long Life Hall he whispered in her ear:

“On high, we’d be two birds flying wing to wing;

On earth, two trees with branches twined from spring to spring.”

The boundless sky and endless earth may pass away,

But this vow unfulfilled will be regretted for aye.

This long poem relates the life-and-death love story of Emperor Xuan Zong in the Tang Dynasty and his favorite Lady Yang Yuhuan.

《长恨歌》是唐代诗人白居易创作的一首长篇叙事诗。此诗可分为三大段,从“汉皇重色思倾国”至“惊破霓裳羽衣曲”共三十二句为第一段,写唐玄宗和杨贵妃的爱情生活、爱情效果,以及由此导致的荒政乱国和安史之乱的爆发。从“九重城阙烟尘生”至“魂魄不曾来入梦”共四十二句为第二段,写马嵬驿兵变,杨贵妃被杀,以及此后唐玄宗对杨贵妃朝思暮想,深情不移。从“临邛道士鸿都客”至“此恨绵绵无绝期”共四十六句为第三段,写唐玄宗派人上天入地到处寻找杨贵妃和杨贵妃在蓬莱宫会见唐玄宗使者的情形。
《长恨歌》的中心思想是批评唐玄宗重色误国导致安史之乱,同时又同情唐玄宗和杨贵妃的爱情悲剧,歌颂他们生死不渝的爱情。全诗的艺术性较高。其一是对原有史料的选择和运用。唐玄宗既是悲剧的制造者,又是悲剧的承受者。诗人在写他们的罪恶一面时,注意点到为止,尽量不太损伤他们的形象,从而保证了悲剧故事前后的和谐统一。其二是故事中浪漫色彩的加入。爱情可以使生者死,可以使死者生,这样的力量在此之前还没有人描写过。其三是有关人物形象、人物心理活动的精彩描写。其四是对离别之苦、相思之情的正面描绘,它不仅占的篇幅大,而且角度多、变化多。其五是语言的精美,既生动、形象、凝练,又婉转、流利、韵律性强,使人传诵不绝。元代白朴的杂剧《唐明皇秋夜梧桐雨》、明代吴世美的传奇《惊鸿记》、清代洪昇的传奇《长生殿》等,在构思上都曾受到《长恨歌》的启发,可见其影响之深远。

The Long Hate Song is a long narrative poem written by Bai Juyi, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poem can be divided into three main stanzas, from “The Han emperor’s love for the kingdom” to “The song of the neon dress”, the first stanza is about the love life of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang and Yang Guifei, the effects of their love, and the resulting desolation and chaos of the state and the outbreak of the An-Shi Rebellion. The second stanza, from “the smoke and dust of the nine-fold city” to “the soul never comes to the dream”, is about the mutiny at Mawei Stage, the murder of Yang Guifei, and the fact that afterwards, Tang Xuanzong thinks about Yang Guifei and is deeply in love with her. The third stanza, from “The Daoist priest of Linqiong, Hongdu Guest” to “This hatred is endless”, consists of forty-six lines, in which the Tang Emperor sends people to search for Yang Guifei everywhere and her meeting with the Tang Emperor’s emissaries at Penglai Palace.
The central idea of “The Song of the Long Hatred” is to criticize Tang Xuanzong for misleading the country with sex, which led to the An-shi Rebellion, and at the same time to sympathize with the tragedy of love between Tang Xuanzong and Yang Guifei, and to praise their undying love. The artistry of the poem is high. One of them is the selection and use of the original historical materials. Tang Xuanzong is both the maker and the bearer of tragedy. When writing about their sinful side, the poet pays attention to the point and tries not to damage their image too much, thus ensuring the harmony and unity before and after the tragic story. The second is the addition of romance to the story. Love can make the living die and the dead live, and such a power has not been depicted before. The third is the wonderful description of the characters and their psychological activities. The fourth is the positive portrayal of the pain of separation and love for each other, which not only occupies a large space, but also has many perspectives and variations. The fifth is the exquisite language, which is not only vivid, graphic and condensed, but also polite, fluent and rhythmic, making people recite it endlessly. Bai Park’s miscellaneous drama “Tang Ming Huang’s Autumn Night Wutong Rain” in Yuan Dynasty, Wu Shimei’s legend “The Story of the Surprise” in Ming Dynasty, and Hong Sheng’s legend “The Palace of Eternal Youth” in Qing Dynasty were all inspired by “The Song of the Long Hatred” in their conception, which shows its profound influence.

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